What proportion of 18- to 44-year-old Americans have never been tested for HIV?

Module 3 Case Study
Required Reading and Resources
Cook, A., Netuveli, G., & Sheikh, A. (2004). Chapter 4: Statistical inference. In Basic skills in statistics: A guide for healthcare professionals (pp. 40-52). London, GBR: Class Publishing. eISBN: 9781859591291.
Davis, R., & Mukamal, K. (2006). Statistical primer for cardiovascular research: Hypothesis testing. Circulation, 114(10), 1078-1082. Retrieved from http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/114/10/1078.full
Norman, G. R., & Streiner, D. L. (2014). Section the first: The nature of data and statistics: Chapter 6: Elements of statistical inference. In Biostatistics: The bare essentials [4th ed., e-Book]. Shelton, Connecticut: PMPH-USA, Ltd. eISBN-13: 978-1-60795-279-4. Available in the Trident Online Library EBSCO eBook Collection.
Additional Reading and Resources (Optional)
McDonald, J. H. (2009). Basic concepts of hypothesis testing. Retrieved from http://www.biostathandbook.com/hypothesistesting.html
Johnson, L. (2008). Principles of hypothesis testing for public health. National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Retrieved from https://ippcr.nihtraining.com/handouts/2011/Hypothesis_2011.pdf
Statistics Learning Centre. (2011, December 5). Hypothesis tests, p-value – Statistics help

. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0zZYBALbZgg
Statistics Learning Centre. (2011, October 31). Understanding the p-value – Statistics help

. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eyknGvncKLw

Stensson, E. (2012, Apr.) Basic statistics tutorial 45 hypothesis testing (one-sided), sample and population mean (z)

. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IKxyXs6kRTo
Homework Assignment
Assignment Overview
Suppose that a 2012 National Health Interview Survey gives the number of adults in the United States which gives the number of adults in the United States (reported in thousands) classified by their age group, and whether or not respondents have ever been tested for HIV. Here are the data:

Age Group
Tested
Never Tested

18–44 years
50,080
56,405

45–64 years
23,768
48,537

65–74 years
2,694
15,162

75 years and older
1,247
14,663

Total
77,789
134,767

Discuss probability. What is its history? What is the theory of probability? How is it calculated? What are the advantages and disadvantages of using this technique?
1. Identify and discuss the two major categories of probability interpretations, whose adherents possess conflicting views about the fundamental nature of probability.
2. Based on this survey, what is the probability that a randomly selected American adult has never been tested? Show your work. Hint: using the data in the two total rows, this would be calculated as p (NT) /( p (NT) + p (T)), where p is probability.
3. What proportion of 18- to 44-year-old Americans have never been tested for HIV? Hint: using the values in the 18–44 cells, this would be calculated as p (NT) / ( p (NT) + p (T)), where p is probability. Show your work.
Submit your (2-3 pages) paper by the end of this module.
 
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