Module 3 Case Study

Required Reading and Resources

Cook, A., Netuveli, G., & Sheikh, A. (2004). Chapter 4: Statistical inference. In Basic skills in statistics: A guide for healthcare professionals (pp. 40-52). London, GBR: Class Publishing. eISBN: 9781859591291.

Davis, R., & Mukamal, K. (2006). Statistical primer for cardiovascular research: Hypothesis testing. Circulation, 114(10), 1078-1082. Retrieved from http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/114/10/1078.full

Norman, G. R., & Streiner, D. L. (2014). Section the first: The nature of data and statistics: Chapter 6: Elements of statistical inference. In Biostatistics: The bare essentials [4th ed., e-Book]. Shelton, Connecticut: PMPH-USA, Ltd. eISBN-13: 978-1-60795-279-4. Available in the Trident Online Library EBSCO eBook Collection.

Additional Reading and Resources (Optional)

McDonald, J. H. (2009). Basic concepts of hypothesis testing. Retrieved from http://www.biostathandbook.com/hypothesistesting.html

Johnson, L. (2008). Principles of hypothesis testing for public health. National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Retrieved from https://ippcr.nihtraining.com/handouts/2011/Hypothesis_2011.pdf

Statistics Learning Centre. (2011, December 5). Hypothesis tests, p-value – Statistics help

. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0zZYBALbZgg

Statistics Learning Centre. (2011, October 31). Understanding the p-value – Statistics help

. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eyknGvncKLw

Stensson, E. (2012, Apr.) Basic statistics tutorial 45 hypothesis testing (one-sided), sample and population mean (z)

. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IKxyXs6kRTo

Homework Assignment

Assignment Overview

Suppose that a 2012 National Health Interview Survey gives the number of adults in the United States which gives the number of adults in the United States (reported in thousands) classified by their age group, and whether or not respondents have ever been tested for HIV. Here are the data:

Age Group

Tested

Never Tested

18–44 years

50,080

56,405

45–64 years

23,768

48,537

65–74 years

2,694

15,162

75 years and older

1,247

14,663

Total

77,789

134,767

Discuss probability. What is its history? What is the theory of probability? How is it calculated? What are the advantages and disadvantages of using this technique?

1. Identify and discuss the two major categories of probability interpretations, whose adherents possess conflicting views about the fundamental nature of probability.

2. Based on this survey, what is the probability that a randomly selected American adult has never been tested? Show your work. Hint: using the data in the two total rows, this would be calculated as p (NT) /( p (NT) + p (T)), where p is probability.

3. What proportion of 18- to 44-year-old Americans have never been tested for HIV? Hint: using the values in the 18–44 cells, this would be calculated as p (NT) / ( p (NT) + p (T)), where p is probability. Show your work.

Submit your (2-3 pages) paper by the end of this module.

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