1. What is Plato’s Allegory of the Cave supposed to demonstrate? How does it relate to his Theory of the Forms? Contrast Plato’s metaphysics with Aristotle’s views. What is substance, according to Aristotle and how does he argue that Plato’s view on the ultimate nature of reality is problematic? Which of the two philosophers has a more convincing argument and why?
2. Think of all the philosophers we have discussed so far this semester and how they have grappled with the question of â€˜what makes up our reality?â€ Discuss at a minimum each of the following: one Pre-Socratic answer to this question, Platoâ€s theory, Descartesâ€ argument, and Spinozaâ€s ideas. Of all these attempts to determine what substance underlies all of reality, which argument is strongest? Why?
3. What is the mind? How best should we understand it? Give the following arguments: that the mind is a non-physical thing like a â€˜soulâ€ that is distinct from the body (Descartes), that the mind is just material in motion (Hobbes), that the mind is identical to the brain (Smart), that the mind cannot be fully explained by the physical world (Nagel and Jackson). After you have given each of these arguments, discuss their strengths and weaknesses. Which theory best explains the mind and why? Defend your choice.
All I need is in each of them answer the questions in each of them in short essay! like I will have three essays?
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