Very often, buffers and other reagents are labeled as 5x or …

Very often, buffers and other reagents are labeled as 5x or 10x. This means that they are 5 or 10 times more concentrated than the working solution. For example, if a 10x buffer had a solute concentration of 0.5 M, the concentration of the solute in the working solution, after dilution, would be 0.05 M or 50 mM.
Phosphate buffered saline, often abbreviated PBS, comes as a 10x solution that contains 20 mM KH2PO4. What is the concentration of KH2PO4 in the working solution of PBS?
The Tris/Borate/EDTA buffer (TBE) is commonly made as a 5x solution. What volumes of 5x TBE and water are required to make 500 mls of a 0.5x solution which is often used in electrophoresis?
When working with the small volumes required for DNA manipulation, the volume of the buffer added is often dictated by the amounts of all the other reagents added to the mix. If you were to perform a reaction using 10x buffer diluted to a 1x working solution, what volume of buffer and water would you use if the other items to be added included the following? Enzymes: 4 µl DNA solution: 6.5 µl ATP: 2 µ

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