__________________ are hard stabilization structures built offshore parallel to the shoreline to create a “quiet” zone behind the structure. 31. __________________ are hard stabilization structures built along the shoreline to prevent coastal erosion and flooding. 32. Beach _____________________________ is an alternative to building hard stabilization structures and involves bringing sand into the area to maintain beach size. 33. _________________________ coastlines typically have an irregular shaped shoreline because when the land lowers or sea level rises, it floods river channels creating ________________________. 34. Because the sediments in the near to offshore are relatively uniform, when sea level drops or the land rises, it creates a relatively straight shoreline. This is typical of an _____________________ coastline. 35. Tides result from the _______________________ pull of both the moon, and to a lesser extent, the sun. 36. ____________ tides have the greatest tidal fluctuation with very high high tides, and very low low tides. 37. Spring tides occur twice a month (every two weeks) when the sun, moon, and earth are aligned. You know when spring tides occur because it is during a ____________ moon (when you see the whole moon), and during a ___________ moon (when there is no moon at night). 38. ____________ tides have the least tidal fluctuation with very low high tides, and very high low tides. 39. Neap tides also occur twice a month midway between full and new ______________. 40. There are typically ___________ high tides and ____________ low tides daily. 41. On the west coast of the U.S. the tidal pattern is _________________, meaning that one high tide is lower than the other, and one low tide is higher than the other. 42. Some restricted bodies of water only have one high tide and one low tide daily. This diurnal tidal pattern is common in the Gulf of ______________________. 43. In other regions of the world hurricanes are called __________________ or _________________. Lesson 14 (Shorelines) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 www.CrosswordWeaver.com ACROSS 2 a flat bench-like rock surface left behind by an eroding sea cliff (3 words) 4 distance wind has traveled over the open water 7 drowned river valley fromrising sea level or subsiding coastline 8 = 1/2 wavelength (2 words) 13 Padre is a good example of this (2 words) 15 walls built perpendicular to the shoreline to prevent deposition of sand in a navigational channel 16 rock wall built on land to prevent erosion of the shoreline 18 current produced as the tides goes out 19 currents running parallel to the shoreline in the surf zone 22 a ridge of sand that completely crosses a bay (2 words) 23 the bending of waves as they approach the shoreline 24 ridge of sand that connects an island to the mainland 25 zone between low and high tide 26 these tides result in the least amount of tidal fluctuation DOWN 1 tidal current flow advancing onto land 3 dangerous currents flowing seaward (2 words) 5 daily changes in the elevation of the ocean surface caused by the moon and sun 6 seaward projecting areas of the shoreline 9 an isolated remnant of rock produced by wave erosion (2 words) 10 distance fromcrest to crest 11 barrier build at right angle to shoreline to trap the sand moving by beach drift 12 the vertical distance between the crest and trough of a wave (2 words) 14 tides that occur when the sun, moon and Earth are aligned 16 zone of turbulent water created by breaking waves 17 a wall build offshore and parallel to shoreline to create a quiet water zone behind it 20 what hurricanes are called in the western Pacific 21 elongated ridges of sand that project out fromthe land into the mouth of an adjacent bay WORD BANK: Barrierisland, baymouthbar, breakwater, ebb, estuary, fetch, flood, foreshore, groin, headlands, jetties, longshore, neap, refraction, ripcurrents, seastack, seawall, spits, spring, surf, tides, tombolo, typhoon, wavebase, wavecutplatform, waveheight, wavelength. Lesson 15: Energy and Mineral Resources 1. Human _______________________ is increasing exponentially. 2. Currently, there are over 7 ___________________ people on earth. 3. Most population growth is happening in ____________________________ (developed or underdeveloped) countries. 4. China uses more _______________ than the U.S., but per capita, the U.S. uses more.
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