Rivers and Groundwater Systems discussion

QUESTION 1

In what part of the water cycle does water have the SHORTEST residence time?

atmosphere

groundwater

oceans

ice sheets

3 points

QUESTION 2

Which of the following can serve as a drainage divide between adjacent watersheds?

ridge

hill

mountain

all of the above

3 points

QUESTION 3

Watersheds are like a system with interacting components that can perform work. Which of the following is an example of work done by a watershed?

carry sediment

transport water

transport energy

all of the above

3 points

QUESTION 4

Compare and contrast surface and subsurface water in terms of natural inputs, outputs, and storage.

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5 points

QUESTION 5

Define
subterranean river and
ephemeral river. Describe the types of areas where each of these river types are found.

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5 points

QUESTION 6

The potential energy of water behind a dam can be used to

drive a turbine and generate electricity

initiate the chemical reactions necessary for power production

prevent the flow of electricity across a river

transform electrical energy to mechanical energy at a power plant

3 points

QUESTION 7

Headward erosion by a stream

extends a valley into a hillside

deepens a valley

both extends and deepens a valley

shortens a valley

3 points

QUESTION 8

When sand and gravel are whirled around by eddies in a river they cause

regolith removal

potholes

stream piracy

headward erosion

3 points

QUESTION 9

Headward erosion takes place opposite the direction of a river’s flow.

True

False

2 points

QUESTION 10

Floodplains are most often found for rivers that exist on

highly elevated mountainous areas

areas that receive constant amounts of high rainfall

hilly areas at the base of mountains

gentle slopes and relatively flat areas

3 points

QUESTION 11

When do alluvial fans develop in arid desert environments?

after periodic flash floods

when rivers finally reach the ocean

when the velocity of a river’s flow increases

all of the above

3 points

QUESTION 12

Which of the following can cause a flash flood?

dam failure

intense thunderstorms

release of ice jams

all of the above

3 points

QUESTION 13

Flash floods are a type of _____ flood.

estuarine

riverine

coastal

storm surge

3 points

QUESTION 14

Which term best describes the topography of a floodplain?

mountainous

highly sloped

moderately sloped

flat

3 points

QUESTION 15

Besides drowning, how else can floods cause loss of human life?

collapse of structures

contamination of drinking water

water-borne diseases

all of the above

3 points

QUESTION 16

If a government flood risk map for your area does not fit on one page, it may be drawn up on several different pages. Each page is referred to as a

panel

subset

minor map

quadrant

3 points

QUESTION 17

Official U.S. government maps that show flood risks are usually printed on which of the following levels?

state-wide

nation-wide

community-wide

street-wide

3 points

QUESTION 18

If your home is damaged by a flood, try to avoid turning on any lights until you know that all gas and electrical lines are undisturbed.

True

False

2 points

QUESTION 19

Why are floods especially common in the spring?

More water is added to a river as groundwater seeps upward.

Winds are more common, causing more movement of water.

Warmer temperatures increase the volume of water in a river.

The still-frozen ground is unable to soak up the water from melting snow.

3 points

QUESTION 20

The percentage of total volume of voids in a rock is called

permeability

saturation

porosity

aeration

3 points

QUESTION 21

How does solution activity make limestone rocks permeable for groundwater flow?

cuts down on the number of open pores

makes the pore spaces less connected

fills in many of the limestone’s cracks

gives the limestone numerous pits and holes

3 points

QUESTION 22

Define the term aquifer and explain the difference between a confined and an unconfined aquifer.

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5 points

QUESTION 23

Natural discharge of a groundwater system occurs when

rainwater percolates down through the soil

the water table intersects the surface of the ground

surface water seeps into the ground

a confined aquifer is pumped for drinking water

3 points

QUESTION 24

Which statement is true about groundwater flow?

Groundwater flows from zones of low pressure to zones of high pressure.

Groundwater does not flow but stays in one location until pumped upward.

Groundwater moves downward by gravity and from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure.

Groundwater circulates in a convection current manner.

3 points

QUESTION 25

How are natural springs, hot springs, and geysers similar? How are they different?

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5 points

QUESTION 26

More than one-half of America’s drinking water comes from groundwater.

True

False

2 points

QUESTION 27

Most groundwater in the U.S. is used for residential purposes, such as laundry and watering lawns.

True

False

2 points

QUESTION 28

A chemical in groundwater that can cause genetic changes is called a

teratogen

VOC

carcinogen

mutagen

3 points

QUESTION 29

A chemical in groundwater that causes cancer is called a

teratogen

VOC

carcinogen

hypoxic substance

3 points

QUESTION 30

Besides saltwater intrusion, describe two other problems commonly caused by over-pumping of groundwater.

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5 points

QUESTION 31

Excessive withdrawal of groundwater for agricultural use rarely causes land subsidence, unlike excessive withdrawal for drinking water, which does cause subsidence.

True

False

2 points

QUESTION 32

After an aquifer collapses due to over-pumping, it can slowly be restored by natural precipitation.

True

False

2 points
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