Museum Study Paper – nursing writers

topic: underwater archeology museum
7 pages with pictures(Figure 1, 2, 3, etc….)
7 Bibliography needed: I use my own modified MLA style, which follows for a book entry, the following format:  Gurian, John G., Museum Studies, 4th edition, New York, 2007.  I will be glad to guide you per your needs for non-book formats. Please note:  I will also accept MLA and or Chicago Styles.

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Footnote example:  A footnote is always found on the page where citation is made.  The style preference is as follows:  Author’s last name, year of publication: pages cited, i.e.: Pedley, 2007:89-90.
As a general rule of thumb, here are, some steps you may take for a well-researched paper:
Here are some that I give to each and every one of my classes, including this one.
Every Paper should include the following:
1.  Every Paper should have either an argument, a thesis or research questions.
2.  Read both primary and secondary literature on your subject and find comparable material for your paper’s topic.
3.  Create an outline for the paper.
4.  Figure out your research question (s) and state it in the beginning of the paper and place the thesis within the existing literature. Address your thesis through both original and or even secondary research.
5.  Come to a conclusion about your topic and fully support your thesis with cite scholarly research using footnotes.
It should be in 1.5 spaces, in 12 fonts and follow the preset MS Word page sizes.
Surname 11
Underwater Museum
The underwater museum is the cultural heritage that includes all traces of being existence and its culture, history, or archaeology behaviour that have periodically or unceasingly existed in water either partially or totally for at minimum 100 years. They include vessels, sites, human remains, aircraft and wreck-sites alongside their prehistory and natural conditions. However, it takes several years of stabilization of these wreaks as they first undergo decomposition due to the seawater environment’s dynamic state, which includes changes in the water level, ground subsidence, and erosion. Despite the archaeological artefacts being decomposed initially by the chemical and biological factors of the seawater, the sea becomes its protector eventually, where they’re preserved for many years (Cheng and Dorothy 88-92). Fundamentally, underwater museums are extensively involved in the water environment and social, environmental and scientific factors in both sea and land.
Underwater museum artwork involves the ‘museography'[footnoteRef:1], the term used in describing the method of the message transmission in cultural, architectural and design display of the museum movable and immovable materials. Currently, the main focus of the underwater museum is achieving its content by displaying and preserving the artwork and attracting people visiting the museum which, is because the interaction between people and the art is the main target and mission of all museums in the world. Vrasida and Maria explain that well-displayed art in a museum can express a story, cultural heritage, history, or national pride sense. To capture the attraction of many people and inspire the visitors, the museum’s architecture is displayed in an attractive design and manner. Underwater museums[footnoteRef:2] are divided into two poles; traditional and non-traditional. Traditional museums do not offer guidance to the viewers. Instead, they choose the methods of interpreting the meaning on their own. The objects in the display are considered a large part of the museum context, hence the criteria of own interpretation. [1: Museography involves the display of fossils in site where they are easily accessible. The fossils and the wreaks preserved in situ are brought near the shallow part of sea where the divers and visitors can access them easily. ] [2: Underwater museums are different from archaeology museum in that they display artefacts while under water while archaeology museum display artefacts in buildings. ]
Non-traditional underwater museums
Non-traditional museums, the sites are classified and preserved for future references and generations. The sites are well labelled, displayed in the most attractive design and protected through a legislature of national policies, a process called ‘situ’ preservation. Every nation has its laws protecting marine museums from either natural or physical threats. The conservation of archaeological wreaks in situ is because of the increasing number of maritime museums discovered. It is not achievable to research every one of them. For example, Netherlands archaeological database, Archis[footnoteRef:3] consist of approximately 1500 crucial archaeological sites. The number of new sites reported annually is approximate 500. (Cheng and Dorothy 188—130). The process of researching every new museum is expensive as it requires deep investment both in capital and skills. Archaeological resources conserved in situ fascinate many visitors due to; easy understanding and connection with its environment, direct link with the appeasing display and the knowledge acquired from the preserved site. [3: Archis archaeological site consisting of approximately 1500 underwater museums and sites is the largest in Netherlands. ]
The recovery of new underwater museums leaves many countries in a dilemma on how to display them. (Bruno et al. 220-236). Bruno explains he argues that, nevertheless, there are many ways to deliver these archaeological artefacts from the threat of physical or natural forces. A significant number of countries are facing this dilemma, one being Egypt. Twenty years back, Egypt recovered many underwater archaeological fossils, including pottery, golden pieces, giant statues and parts of submerged buildings. Unfortunately, only the researchers and archaeologists have access to information because they put them into stores. They are not open to public viewing, which results in public awareness unconsciousness about the existence of underwater fossils. Conversely, the Egyptian Underwater and Archaeological departments have used traditional showcasing methods in museums like displays of glasses with labels on them and displayed approximately 5% of the total recovered underwater artefacts while an estimated 95% being in stores.
Methods used in the presentation of underwater artefacts
Most countries with marine museums do not rely on their genuine artefacts for display. Some of them have innovated and created attractive museum artefacts (Bruno et al. 228-240)
Replicas are archaeological displays made creatively to present the real underwater historical fossils which cannot be accessed and viewed by the people and as a method to cater for the insufficient space in museums. It can be either in the form of a vessel or a site. They minimize the visitors’ gap for the visitors because they are touchable and can be felt and explored. A replica is made using the whole underwater archaeological scene or the entire vessel object found underwater. In Egypt, the Hatshepsut boat is currently displayed in Suez Museum, while in the American whaleboat, replica named Beetle are some of the world’s known replica vessels. Replica site in France was recovered around the 1950s and later re-submerged off the shores of Marseille in an appropriate location, allowing different types of divers. However, replica sites do not present authentic sites as they are challenging to diving visitors but suitable for land-based visitors.
Models of the most critical archaeological vessels, parts of ancient building and coins presenting those in underwater museums attract many visitors who buy them to preserve a piece of history. This attraction earns most museums income. The British Museum makes a spectacular and impressive small model of paradigmatic artefacts which are unique. According to Bruno et al., visitors can touch and interact with displayed models of early navigation tools stored at the Museum of South Australia in Adelaide. In addition, models represent the whole underwater archaeological area like in Western Australia, where the Xantho ship wreak reconstruction site located.
Virtual reality
A person has ability to control whatever he or she focuses on. This technique use a computer initiated skill that uses a 3D virtual environs to interact with the visitor. However, the visitor has authority over it by use of a remote or by performing gestures while wearing a head-mounted display (HMD) or 3D glasses. Virtual reality is use to display the information and archaeological fossils of the museum. This innovative skill also helps in viewing the fossils which no longer exists underwater due to damages occurring in the sea (Vrasida and Maria). Talks and workshops can be used to educate the interested members of society to create a strong relationship with their past. Handling these underwater archaeological displays can create a stronger bond between community and heritage
Underwater museum heritage pulls a significant potential for precious scientific research alongside education to visitors and the general public. Submerged fossils offer great information about the development of ancient generations and human civilization. Likewise, the ship wreaks, religious sites and buildings ruins dispense vital information, data and facts on ancient cultural practices, trade, religious ceremonies, local life and sacrifices. Submerged heritage has environmental, aesthetic and cultural importance as they offer the surrounding areas with cultural enrichment and creates an urban recreational area (Alicja et al. 126-142). The mystery stories surrounding the underwater museums, such as its location underseas and symbolisms given, are behind the high appreciation from the visitors and public.
According to Alicja et al., the research, public display and conservation of underwater museums creates an essential cultural and educational impression on the community. Interaction between the current cultural activities and heritage is shaped by learning and preserving them. Currently, the media output, urbanization and globalization disparity can cause cognitive distortions to some groups of populations of their roots of origin and its importance and impression of some historical realities on today’s circumstances. This disparity can be due to greater use of varied languages, change of customized writing styles like Arabic letters, Latin and Cyrillic and significant variation of TV programs. The optimization of inheritance and its stimulating educational programs could aid in rejuvenating the cultural aspects of the visitors and area residents. Furthermore, it assists in connecting the societies with their past and helping in promoting the tangible historical connections that could remain pieces of literature and viva voce. Underwater museums are hence parcelled at educating and connecting societies with their past as they reinstate the information firmly into minds, and history comes out more lively and vividly.
Visitor Engagement
People visit underwater museums for recreation and learning as tourists. The connection between tourism and traditions is inescapable. The growing enthusiasm of resources to cultural aspects is connected to the betterment of the tourism sector (Bruno et al. 811-955). A recent study shows that over 37% of tourism globally is motivated by culture. Underwater museums sites are the primary source of attraction among the cultural attraction sites. Some pieces of underwater museums which are challenging to reach can be accessed through land-based museums. Countries with vast underwater patrimony in major museums encourage their visitors by recovering artefacts and the entire wrecks, making them visible to every visitor (Amer et al.). This observation creates a long-lasting attraction site in many museums. Vasa Museum in Stockholm, Sweden, attracts approximately one million tourists in a day due to providing the visibility of the artefacts to the tourists. This method is known as a dry footed entry. The inaccessibility of diving is contributed by the depth of the sea, making archaeological artefacts transported from situ to land-based museums.
However, nowadays, accessibility has been made possible for visitors through boat use with a glass bottom that cruises to the artefacts’ situ location and tourists can connect with their culture. Another visitor engagement is via virtual observation, where the ship crosses over the site of the submerged artefact as the visitors observe virtually from the sets paced under their boat. Study shows that Scuba diving popularity increases and estimated around 12-14% annual global growth. Scuba diving[footnoteRef:4] is a leisure activity where one can easily access artefacts in their exact location, such as in situ following the site’s protocols. Moreover, it is reported that visitors visiting underwater artefacts spent more time than those visiting dry-footed sites (Bruno et al. 198-216). Numerous situ sites are located near the coast, making dive clubs visit submerged sites severally. Submerged archaeological sites are a great option in promoting any country tourism if well managed and made accessible to many visitors. [4: Scuba diving is a type of diving involving use of scuba, which carries breathing tools. The scuba is self-controlled. ] mexico%2F&psig=AOvVaw2BR4Gg4tx4yxe1R72RDi18&ust=1620116517985000&source=images&cd=vfe&ved=0CA0QjhxqFwoTCNib5f-7rPACFQAAAAAdAAAAABAD
Underwater museums and artefacts were formed by both tangible and intangible sunken heritages deep down the sea. Living cultures wreaks of buildings and ships, folklores, open cities, and cargoes are some of the heritages that gave out the existence of underwater museums. Sunken remains of ancient life-like sculptures, jetties, and waterfront, which are currently underwater, gave rise to underwater museums. In Egypt, ruins of the lighthouse were recovered at the port of Alexandria (Amer et al. 650-700). The pharaoh lighthouse used to one among the seven wonders of the world in ancient life. The earthquake destroyed the “Pharos” lighthouse during the fourteenth century, and the remains dislocated in the sea depth of seven to eight meters of the sea level.
The cities that were completely submerged under the sea due to natural disasters like earthquakes form some of the current underwater museums. Some parts submerged city of old Alexandria, which existed since 331BC, are currently found in the eastern harbour of the port of Alexandria. The mission in the Abu Qir Bay, conducted by frank Goddio in 1998 in search of lost parts of the Napoleon during a battle, discovered L”Orient ship and two others. During this recovery, the ancient ruins of the Hereklein city were found approximately covering 10 yards in the sea. The number of wreak ships yet to be discovered are approximated to be around three million, according to Amer et al. (813-901)
While tracking human influence on the level of cultural heritage in society is proportionately predictable and manageable, underwater tracking is relatively different. Threats and risks accompany it. Underwater features are delicate which needs to be handled with lots of care because of the breakage which occurs during the transportation of artefacts from situ to the land museum (Jue and Melody 138-156). This breakage makes the maintenance of artefacts in situ is challenging, especially where legislations are absent. It is argued that since all organic and non-organic tools undergo physical and chemical decomposition when dropped in water for a specific time, archaeological artefacts are no exception. Thus, they should be disinfected and treated once removed from the water. By disinfecting them, their cultural value would be eroded and lost (Amer et al. 153-160)
Since the natural factors played a role in the current presence of submerged fossils, the same threat can face the submerged fossils. A permanent and continuous flow of water causes erosion of sand, leading to the transportation of decomposed fossils. With the advancement of diving tools that can reach deeper depths, there could be an alteration of the normal flow of sea currents and other natural habitats of sea life. The Malaysia shipwreck site has been reported on congestion of dive boats in the area. This congestion can cause damage on cause damages on vessels transporting visitors to the wreck sites. Furthermore, a similar study showed a lack of cooperation and engagement between the tourists and coordinators of the places they visited, revealing the presence of difficulties experienced due to poorly managed archaeological sites.
Underwater museums and cultural heritage are essential aspects of today’s peoples’ lives as they are rich in offering education, connecting people with their past, and being a source of recreation. Archaeological fossils and underwater museums should therefore be protected, preserved and managed to serve all generations. Consequently, it is crucial to develop a strategy for conservation of the aquatic resources, not forgetting to form legitimate accessibility for purposes like education and enjoyment. Museums are an evident source of messages transmission due to the legitimizing and reliable nature in which they exist.
Works Cited
Amer, Mohamed Badry Kamel Basuny. “Egyptian Underwater Heritage in Alexandria and Preservation Management.”
Bruno, Fabio, et al. “Digital Technologies for the Sustainable Development of the Accessible Underwater Cultural Heritage Sites.” Journal of Marine Science and Engineering 8.11 (2020): 955.
Bruno, Fabio, et al. “Virtual reality technologies for the exploitation of underwater cultural heritage.” Latest Developments in Reality-Based 3D Surveying and Modelling; Remondino, F., Georgopoulos, A., González-Aguilera, D., Agrafiotis, P., Eds (2018): 220-236.
Cheng, Dorothy. “Preserving Underwater Cultural Heritage in a Globalized World.” Journal of Undergraduate Studies at Trent (JUST) 5.1 (2017): 88-92
Jagielska-Burduk, Alicja, Mateusz Pszczyński, and Piotr Stec. “Cultural Heritage Education in UNESCO Cultural Conventions.” Sustainability 13.6 (2021): 3548.
Jue, Melody. “Four. Underwater Museums/Diving as Method.” Wild Blue Media. Duke University Press, 2020. 142-166.
Vrasida, Maria. “Underwater Cultural Heritage Tourism and Diving Tourism Alternatives in the COVID-19 Era.” Strategic Innovative Marketing and Tourism in the COVID-19 Era: 9th ICSIMAT Conference 2020. Springer International Publishing, 2021.
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