Jackson aged three years old, was observed in the bathroom p…

ReferenceSkinner, B. F. (1953). Science and the Behavior of Humans Macmillan, located in New York, New York.XII PUNISHMENT (p 182)How prevalent is punishment as a procedure in society?Why does Skinner suggest that we (culture/society) have long been concerned with the use of punishment?What is the experimental finding of using a punishment procedure during an extinction process that suggested that the effects of punishment may be only temporary.What does Skinner list as a “first effect of punishment”?What is a second effect of punishment identified by Skinner?To the extent that a “lie detector” is accurate (we know that, in some instances, it can be “beaten”), why would it be effective at helping the trained person using it detect lies?What is a third effect of punishment identified by Skinner?What are two unfortunate by-products of punishment?.Describe some “unfortunate by-products of punishment”.Note Skinner’s suggestions for alternatives to punishment predate the publication of JABA by 15 years. What are two that he suggests that are commonly used in applied situations today?XII FUNCTION VERSUS ASPECT (p 194)If we combine terms available in the English language that refer to enduring traits and terms referring to more temporary conditions, about how many can be listed? _________Many trait terms provide a means for “representing the ______________ of an organism, and with some indication of the relative _________ of its parts and with certain inferences regarding ______________ _______________ .”Other trait terms are invoked when referring to the __________ at which behavioral processes take place.Identify one possible advantage and a key disadvantage of using trait psychology to predict the probability that an individual will be suited to, say, a particular job.Why is trait psychology, in the final analysis, inadequate to the meeting the needs of a functional analysis?Although trait names are extensively embedded in our daily discourse, why is our familiarity with those terms misleading in terms of prediction and control?Are traits causes? Explain.XIV THE ANALYSIS OF COMPLEX CASES (p 204)Why does a laboratory analysis deliberately simplify a situation when the scientist knows the “real world” is not that simple?How does an initial laboratory over simplification come to gradually approximate more complex situations?“A given event may have _______ or ________ kinds of ______________ upon behavior at the ______________ ____________ .”Give an example of four effects of a single aversive stimulus made contingent upon a response.Provide an original example of the multiple effects of a single stimulus presentation in your life .Another way in which independent variables may interact is that “two or more __________________ may _____________ in a ______________ effect.For someone with a history of getting drunk at singles bars and picking up a partner for a one night stand, why might a recent deprivation history of no sexual contact and no alcoholic consumption increase the probability of “hitting the bar” more than if the person had gotten drunk or gotten laid the night before?Provide an original example of a verbal utterance of yours that could be interpreted as being under multiple control; provide your interpretation of those sources of control.Give an original or personal example of a formal prompt for a verbal utterance.Give an original or personal example of a thematic prompt for a verbal utterance.Distinguish between formal and thematic prompts and probes.Give an example of multiple determinants occurring to alter perceptual behavior.When the probability of two responses is high at the same time, the appearance of one of those responses is referred to as _________________ .“A special kind of chaining is represented by behavior which ________ the __________________ of other behavior and is __________________ because it does so.”Give an example of an organized response chain involving non-vocal/non-verbal motor movements.Give an example of an organized response chain involving vocal or other verbal response sequences.
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