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Introduction: The huge amount of spatial data generated by GIS expansion, the increasing number of GIS applications available, the computerization of a large amount of information sources, and the availability of digital map has increased the opportunity and need for the usage of methods for spatial visualization of statistical data, for both research and applied purposes. Being able to visualize changes in boundaries and attribute values over time is an effective approach to better understanding and exploring data. Because time is a dimension of the data rather than an attribute all views of the data are easily animated. Analogous to a static GIS, attributes of data are visualized by specifying color, shape, and size of graphical elements.
Data Visualization Procedure:
1. The map view displays spatial data and the user interacts with the maps by zooming, panning, selecting and querying. It’s employed to show individuals changing place of residence through time; arsenic-emitting industries being founded, operating and going out of business; municipal water supply districts growing and attribute values such as arsenic concentrations, changing through time.
2. In the STIS histograms,scatter, plots and box plots are also animated over time. For example, we used this feature to explore how individuals arsenic exposure changed over a participant’s lifetime. we also used it to compare estimated arsenic burdens for the cases to those of the control population.
3. Table views also are animated, as the given value of a variable will change through time. Tables thus show how data values change over time by updating a given objects value when it increases or decreases.
Given their complementary nature, the evolution of geographic information (hereafter GIS) and visualization systems for monitoring geospatial data are described together. Both are interdisciplinary, drawing from and being used in a broad range of backgrounds and disciplines. They both enjoy a history that predates computer technology and one that was spurred on by similar technological advancements.
The framework specifies four core GIS functions: spatial visualization, database management, decision modeling, and design and planning. Spatial imaging refers to the fundamental GIS capability of representing data and information within a spatially defined coordinate system (e.g., a map). The database management function represents the capability of GIS to store, manipulate, and provide access to data. Finally, the design and planning function represents those GIS tools that can be used to create, design, and plan. In addition to the core GIS functions, the model also represents several specific GIS applications toward which these GIS functions can be applied. These applications include surveying and mapping, facility management, market analysis, transportation, logistics, strategic planning, decision making, design and engineering. Each of these application areas utilizes, to one degree or another, each of the core GIS functions. However, each application also relies to a greater degree on one or more of the core GIS functions; thus, each application is shown proximate to the core function that is most important for that application. In addition, remote sensing and GPS can be used to more accurately generate maps because the paper map is removed as the data source. In spite of this, map acquisition can be one of the most problematic areas in GIS usage.
The First GIS business application is in facilities management (FM). GIS are useful for FM applications because they provide managers with tools to support Real-time monitoring of facilities and resources. This becomes more important for organizations that are undergoing restructuring or for organizations that have resources that are geographically distributed. The key functions of GIS used in FM are the spatial visualization and database management functions. The AM function of GIS are often combined with FM functions to provide organizations with a system for generating, managing, and utilizing maps and other spatial data (i.e., AM/FM Systems).
The second GIS application is market analysis. The primary function of market analysis is to understand the customer. GIS is a powerful market analysis tool because it provides a platform for representing the spatial relationship between the components of the market; that is, the customers, suppliers, and competitors. In other words, most market analysis applications use historical or transaction (real-time) data in combination with decision modeling and support tools to analyze the organization’s marketing environment.
The Third GIS application area is in logistics and transportation problems. GIS is useful for logistical problems because these problems almost always involve spatial data. In this context, GIS can be used both as a platform for performing decision modeling and for displaying the results of analysis. Several specific GIS applications in this area including vehicle routing, dispatch, production control, inventory management, and navigation. The heart of transportation and logistical GIS is the decision modeling function.
Conclusion: This approach is significant in that it not only visualizes the movement and attribute changes of spatial objects (including cases, controls, arsenic producing industries, and municipal water supplies) but also allows the user to compare values of these objects over time by time-linking windows. GIS is moving quickly into the private sector, yet few members of the information systems research community have actively examined this technology. Many opportunities exist for research. For instance, more information about managing GIS through the implementation and operational phases of its life-cycle is needed.
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