Help me out with these question. needs a paragraph or two. Thank you! QUESTION 1 Noam’s mom keeps a chart on his bedroom wall and adds a gold star…

Help me out with these question. needs a paragraph or two. Thank you!!

Noam’s mom keeps a chart on his bedroom wall and adds a gold star for each day that his room is clean. His mom is using ________ to strengthen the response.
a.secondary reinforcers
b.higher-order conditioning
c.systematic desensitization
d.primary reinforcers


Match the definition with the appropriate term.
      –       a.       b.       c.       d.       e.    
The perception of pain coming from a limb or organ that has been removed
      –       a.       b.       c.       d.       e.    
Systematic errors in perception that occur when sensory cues are misleading or when we misinterpret cues
      –       a.       b.       c.       d.       e.    
The accurate perception of objects as stable or unchanged, despite changes in the sensory patterns they produce
      –       a.       b.       c.       d.       e.    
The study of purported psychic phenomena such as ESP and mental telepathy
      –       a.       b.       c.       d.       e.    
A habitual way of perceiving, based on expectations
a.parapsychologyb.phantom painc.perceptual constancyd.perceptual illusionse.perceptual set


In addition to a subject’s sensory capacity, signal-detection theory takes into account the:
a.Amount of practice a subject has had
b.Tendency for the subject’s performance to improve over time
c.Tendency for the subject’s performance to worsen over time
d.Subject’s response bias


Five-year-old Samantha is watching a storm from her window. A huge bolt of lightning is followed by a tremendous thunderclap. Startled, Samantha jumps at the noise. This happens several times. As the storm moves farther away, Samantha jumps at the sight of a lightning bolt but hears the thunder after her jump! In this example, the unconditioned stimulus is the ________ and the conditioned stimulus is the ________.
a.jumping; lightning
b.thunder; jumping
c.thunder; lightning
d.lightning; thunder

Question 5

It has been found that humans:
a.Are sensitive to almost the entire range of electromagnetic energy.
b.Can hear sounds that are two octaves beyond the range of bats.
c.Can see a candle flame on a clear, dark night from 50 kilometres away.
d.Are one of the few species that can see ultraviolet light.


It is a beautiful day with just a few clouds in the deep blue sky. The fact that the clouds look closer to you than the sky is an example of:
a.The Ponzo illusion
b.Illusory contours
c.Figure and ground
d.Brightness constancy


If the visual system did not detect differences in the wavelengths of light, we would NOT:
a.Be able to recognize objects using visual information.
b.Be able to detect differences in brightness.
c.Be able to detect differences in colour.
d.Have depth perception.


Match the descriptions with the appropriate type of reinforcement.
      –       a.       b.       c.       d.       e.    
A reinforcement procedure in which a response is followed by the presentation of, or increase in intensity of, a reinforcing stimulus
      –       a.       b.       c.       d.       e.    
Use of a reinforcer that is inherently related to the activity being reinforced
      –       a.       b.       c.       d.       e.    
Use of a stimulus that has acquired reinforcing properties through association with other reinforcers
      –       a.       b.       c.       d.       e.    
A reinforcement procedure in which a response is followed by the removal, delay, or decrease in intensity of an unpleasant stimulus
      –       a.       b.       c.       d.       e.    
Use of a reinforcer that is not inherently related to the activity being reinforced
a.secondary reinforcementb.negative reinforcementc.positive reinforcementd.intrinsic reinforcemente.extrinsic reinforcement


Which one of the following statements about rods and cones is true?
a.Cones are sensitive to colour and rods are not.
b.Cones are used for night vision and rods for daylight vision.
c.There are more cones than rods in the retina.
d.Rods are less sensitive than cones.


________ would occur if your friends teased you for being an egghead because you studied so much.
a.Positive reinforcement
b.Negative punishment
c.Positive punishment
d.Negative reinforcement


A social-cognitive learning theorist would be more likely to argue that learning involves:
a.The types of associations made in operant, but not classical, conditioning
b.The connections made between stimuli and responses
c.A change in a person’s knowledge, which may, in turn, affect behaviour
d.A change in behaviour due to fatigue, injury, or illness, in addition to experience


After a child learns to fear spiders, he also responds with fear to ants and beetles. This is an example of:
a.Stimulus generalization
b.Operant conditioning
d.Spontaneous recovery


Keegan notices that his favourite 99-cent candy bar seems lighter than usual and so he checks the label and finds that it is lighter by 15 grams. He decides to buy a larger candy bar instead and doesn’t notice that the $1.49 candy bar also is lighter by 15 grams. Keegan’s behaviour illustrates the fact that:
a.The larger a weight is, the greater the change must be before one can detect a difference.
b.The just noticeable difference is not a reliable measure of psychophysiological judgment.
c.JNDs are unpredictable, because sometimes Keegan can and sometimes he can’t detect a 15-gram change.
d.Sensory adaptation may occur in the short time between holding one candy bar and then the other.


Harmony notices that her cat scurries into the kitchen as soon as Harmony opens a can of cat food with an electric can opener. In this example, the ________ is the conditioned stimulus.
a.sound of the electric can opener that Harmony puts the food in scurrying into the kitchen
d.can of cat food


The pitch of sound is determined by its ________; the loudness of sound is determined by its ________.
a.frequency; complexity
b.frequency; intensity
c.intensity; amplitude
d.amplitude; intensity


Match the descriptions with the appropriate concept.
      –       a.       b.       c.       d.       e.    
A form of learning that is not immediately expressed in an overt response
      –       a.       b.       c.       d.       e.    
A stimulus that signals when a particular response is likely to be followed by a certain type of consequence
      –       a.       b.       c.       d.       e.    
An operant-conditioning procedure in which successive approximations of a desired response are reinforced
      –       a.       b.       c.       d.       e.    
During operant conditioning, the tendency for an organism to revert to instinctive behaviour
      –       a.       b.       c.       d.       e.    
The reappearance of a learned response after its apparent extinction
a.shaping/b.latent learningc.discriminative stimulusd.spontaneous recoverye.instinctive drift


Which one of the following is NOT related to functional codes?
a.Why are the cells firing?
b.What is the rate at which cells are firing?
c.Which cells are firing?
d.How many cells are firing?


Which one of the following is NOT an accurate description of taste?
a.Receptor cells are replaced by new cells about every 10 days.
b.The taste buds are the receptors for taste.
c.After the age of 40, the total number of taste buds declines.
d.The four basic tastes can be perceived at any spot on the tongue that has receptors.


You clean your room so your mother will stop nagging you. Your mother used ________ to get you to clean your room.
a.negative reinforcement
b.positive reinforcement
d.primary reinforcement


The actual organ of hearing is a chamber inside the:
a.Auditory canal
d.Semicircular canal


Match the description with the appropriate theory.
      –       a.       b.       c.       d.       e.    
A theory of colour perception that proposes three mechanisms in the visual system, each sensitive to a certain range of wavelengths; their interaction is assumed to produce all the different experiences of hue
      –       a.       b.       c.       d.       e.    
Principles that describe the brain’s organization of sensory information into meaningful units and patterns
      –       a.       b.       c.       d.       e.    
A psychophysical theory that divides the detection of a sensory signal into a sensory process and a decision process
      –       a.       b.       c.       d.       e.    
The theory that the experience of pain depends in part on whether pain impulses get past a neurological “gate” in the spinal cord and thus reach the brain
      –       a.       b.       c.       d.       e.    
A theory of colour perception that assumes that the visual system treats pairs of colours as opposing or antagonistic
a.opponent-process theoryb.Gestalt principlesc.trichromatic theoryd.signal-detection theorye.gate-control theory


Sensation occurs in the ________, whereas perception occurs in the ________.
a.brain; sense organs
b.sense organs; brain
c.central nervous system; peripheral nervous system
d.brain; brain


Serena’s friends ask her to meet them at a new restaurant. She is hesitant about catching up with them because she has never been to that specific address. Serena finds her way there because she experienced ________ when driving to other addresses in that part of town.
a.negative reinforcement
b.latent learning
c.instinctive drift
d.positive reinforcement


The difference between a reinforcer and a punisher is that:
a.Reinforcers strengthen behaviour and punishers weaken behaviour.
b.Punishers are primary and reinforcers are secondary.
c.Reinforcers are positive and punishers are negative.
d.Reinforcers are primary and punishers are secondary.


Higher-order conditioning involves using an already established ________ to establish a new conditioned stimulus.
a.unconditioned response
b.conditioned response
c.conditioned stimulus
d.unconditioned stimulus


The week after she earns her driver’s licence, 16-year-old Hannah arrives home an hour after curfew. As a consequence, Hannah must wash the car on Saturday and is not allowed to drive it for a week. Washing the car is a ________, and losing driving privileges is a ________.
a.positive punisher; negative punisher
b.negative punisher; positive punisher
c.negative punisher; negative punisher
d.positive punisher; positive punisher


Use your imagination to provide an example of a real-world application of signal-detection theory.


The textbook illustrated the production of negative afterimages by suggesting that readers stare at the centre of a green heart, edged in yellow. After 20 seconds, when the gaze was switched to a white paper, there was a “change of heart!” What colours did you “see” in the image of the heart on the white paper? How does opponent-process theory explain this finding?


Because of classical conditioning, medical treatment can create unexpected misery or relief from symptoms for reasons that are entirely unrelated to the treatment itself. Give an example that illustrates this statement.


Harry and Sally want their daughter to begin using her utensils correctly at the dinner table. But they can’t reinforce her appropriate behaviour because she doesn’t ever use her fork and knife appropriately! What conditioning procedures would be useful in this situation? Briefly describe how Harry and Sally might behave in order to reinforce their goal in this example.
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