First pdf is the short story you will be writing about, read…

First pdf is the short story you will be writing about, read…

First pdf is the short story you will be writing about, read it and have a good understanding. You can do research if wanted/needed.
Second pdf is the directions for the outline, choose a structure of your liking that would fit the short story best.
Some things to think about:

What literary element(s) will you work with (setting, character, etc.)?
What arguable assertion/thesis statement about the literary element do you plan to develop (Aylmer is the true protagonist, the central theme of Robert Frost’s poem “‘Out, Out – ‘” is …, etc.)? i.e. Write your thesis statement. Consider the format of the example below. Be sure to use the author’s first and last name and the title of text. Titles of poems and short stories are in quotations marks, and titles of plays and novels are in italics. Please ensure that your thesis is not merely a statement of fact.
Write your forecasting statement. List three to five reasons why you think your assertion is valid. Consider the format of the example below.

(Example) Thesis Statement:
This is the main point of your writing, and it should be clearly stated. The entire writing will attempt to prove this point. Example: In Zora Neale Hurston’s novel Their Eyes Were Watching God, Hurston utilizes images from nature to portray Janie’s metamorphosis from naivety to maturity. 
(Example) Forecasting Statement:
This is a clear and concise statement (or statements) that explains how the thesis will be supported or proven. (If the thesis is where your writing is going, the forecasting statement is how you will get there.) Note that you may not be able to fit all of your reasons in one sentence, and that is fine.Example: The blossoming pear tree, the tide, the hurricane and the horizon all beautifully and powerfully illustrate Janie’s transformation.
In order to earn full credit for this assignment, you must place the thesis and forecasting statement at the top of the outline and then thoroughly outline the major points of your literary analysis including pointing to specific textual support that will be utilized. 

Ernest Hemingway, “Soldier’s Home” (1925)
Krebs went to the war from a Methodist college in Kansas. There is a picture
which shows him among his fraternity brothers, all of them wearing exactly the
same height and style collar. He enlisted in the Marines in 1917 and did not return
to the United States until the second division returned from the Rhine in the
summer of 1919.
There is a picture which shows him on the Rhone with two German girls and
another corporal. Krebs and the corporal look too big for their uniforms. The
German girls are not beautiful. The Rhine does not show in the picture.
By the time Krebs returned to his home town in Oklahoma the greeting of heroes
was over. He came back much too late. The men from the town who had been
drafted had all been welcomed elaborately on their return. There had been a great
deal of hysteria. Now the reaction had set in. People seemed to think it was rather
ridiculous for Krebs to be getting back so late, years after the war was over.
At first Krebs, who had been at Belleau Wood, Soissons, the Champagne, St.
Mihiel and in the Argonne did not want to talk about the war at all. Later he felt
the need to talk but no one wanted to hear about it. His town had heard too many
atrocity stories to be thrilled by actualities. Krebs found that to be listened to at all
he had to lie and after he had done this twice he, too, had a reaction against the
war and against talking about it. A distaste for everything that had happened to
him in the war set in because of the lies he had told. All of the times that had been
able to make him feel cool and clear inside himself when he thought of them; the
times so long back when he had done the one thing, the only thing for a man to
do, easily and naturally, when he might have done something else, now lost their
cool, valuable quality and then were lost themselves.
His lies were quite unimportant lies and consisted in attributing to himself things
other men had seen, done or heard of, and stating as facts certain apocryphal
incidents familiar to all soldiers. Even his lies were not sensational at the pool
room. His acquaintances, who had heard detailed accounts of German women
found chained to machine guns in the Argonne and who could not comprehend, or
were barred by their patriotism from interest in, any German machine gunners
who were not chained, were not thrilled by his stories.
Krebs acquired the nausea in regard to experience that is the result of untruth or
exaggeration, and when he occasionally met another man who had really been a
soldier and the talked a few minutes in the dressing room at a dance he fell into
the easy pose of the old soldier among other soldiers: that he had been badly,
sickeningly frightened all the time. In this way he lost everything.

During this time, it was late summer, he was sleeping late in bed, getting up to
walk down town to the library to get a book, eating lunch at home, reading on the
front porch until he became bored and then walking down through the town to
spend the hottest hours of the day in the cool dark of the pool room. He loved to
play pool.
In the evening he practiced on his clarinet, strolled down town, read and went to
bed. He was still a hero to his two young sisters. His mother would have given
him breakfast in bed if he had wanted it. She often came in when he was in bed
and asked him to tell her about the war, but her attention always wandered. His
father was non-committal.
Before Krebs went away to the war he had never been allowed to drive the family
motor car. His father was in the real estate business and always wanted the car to
be at his command when he required it to take clients out into the country to show
them a piece of farm property. The car always stood outside the First National
Bank building where his father had an office on the second floor. Now, after the
war, it was still the same car.
Nothing was changed in the town except that the young girls had grown up. But
they lived in such a complicated world of already defined alliances and shifting
feuds that Krebs did not feel the energy or the courage to break into it. He liked to
look at them, though. There were so many good-looking young girls. Most of
them had their hair cut short. When he went away only little girls wore their hair
like that or girls that were fast. They all wore sweaters and shirt waists with round
Dutch collars. It was a pattern. He liked to look at them from the front porch as
they walked on the other side of the street. He liked to watch them walking under
the shade of the trees. He liked the round Dutch collars above their sweaters. He
liked their silk stockings and flat shoes. He liked their bobbed hair and the way
they walked.
When he was in town their appeal to him was not very strong. He did not like
them when he saw them in the Greek’s ice cream parlor. He did not want them
themselves really. They were too complicated. There was something else.
Vaguely he wanted a girl but he did not want to have to work to get her. He would
have liked to have a girl but he did not want to have to spend a long time getting
her. He did not want to get into the intrigue and the politics. He did not want to
have to do any courting. He did not want to tell any more lies. It wasn’t worth it.

He did not want any consequences. He did not want any consequences ever again.
He wanted to live along without consequences. Besides he did not really need a
girl. The army had taught him that. It was all right to pose as though you had to
have a girl. Nearly everybody did that. But it wasn’t true. You did not need a girl.
That was the funny thing. First a fellow boasted how girls mean nothing to him,
that he never thought of them, that they could not touch him. Then a fellow
boasted that he could not get along without girls, that he had to have them all the
time, that he could not go to sleep without them.
That was all a lie. It was all a lie both ways. You did not need a girl unless you
thought about them. He learned that in the army. Then sooner or later you always
got one. When you were really ripe for a girl you always got one. You did not
have to think about it. Sooner or later it could come. He had learned that in the
Now he would have liked a girl if she had come to him and not wanted to talk.
But here at home it was all too complicated. He knew he could never get through
it all again. It was not worth the trouble. That was the thing about French girls and
German girls. There was not all this talking. You couldn’t talk much and you did
not need to talk. It was simple and you were friends. He thought about France and
then he began to think about Germany. On the whole he had liked Germany
better. He did not want to leave Germany. He did not want to come home. Still, he
had come home. He sat on the front porch.
He liked the girls that were walking along the other side of the street. He liked the
look of them much better than the French girls or the German girls. But the world
they were in was not the world he was in. He would like to have one of them. But
it was not worth it. They were such a nice pattern. He liked the pattern. It wis
exciting. But he would not go through all the talking. He did not want one badly
enough. He liked to look at them all, though. It was not worth it. Not now when
things were getting good again.
He sat there on the porch reading a book on the war. It was a history and he was
reading about all the engagements he had been in. It was the most interesting
reading he had ever done. He wished there were more maps. He looked forward
with a good feeling to reading all the really good histories when they would come
out with good detail maps. Now he was really learning about the war. He had
been a good soldier. That made a difference.
One morning after he had been home about a month his mother came into his
bedroom and sat on the bed. She smoothed her apron.
“I had a talk with your father last night, Harold,” she said, “and he is willing for
you to take the car out in the evenings.”
“Yeah?” said Krebs, who was not fully awake. “Take the car out? Yeah?”

“Yes. Your father has felt for some time that you should be able to take the car
out in the evenings whenever you wished but we only talked it over last night.”
“I’ll bet you made him,” Krebs said.
“No. It was your father’s suggestion that we talk the matter over.”
“Yeah. I’ll bet you made him,” Krebs sat up in bed.
“Will you come down to breakfast, Harold?” his mother said.”
“As soon as I get my clothes on,” Krebs said.
His mother went out of the room and he could hear her frying something
downstairs while he washed, shaved and dressed to go down into the dining-room
for breakfast. While he was eating breakfast, his sister brought in the mail.
“Well, Hare,” she said. “You old sleepy-head. What do you ever get up for?”
Krebs looked at her. He liked her. She was his best sister.
“Have you got the paper?” he asked.
She handed him The Kansas City Star and he shucked off its brown wrapper and
opened it to the sporting page. He folded The Star open and propped it against the
water pitcher with his cereal dish to steady it, so he could read while he ate.
“Harold,” his mother stood in the kitchen doorway, “Harold, please don’t muss up
the paper. Your father can’t read his Star if its been mussed.”
“I won’t muss it,” Krebs said.
His sister sat down at the table and watched him while he read.
“We’re playing indoor over at school this afternoon,” she said. “I’m going to
“Good,” said Krebs. “How’s the old wing?”
“I can pitch better than lots of the boys. I tell them all you taught me. The other
girls aren’t much good.”
“Yeah?” said Krebs.
“I tell them all you’re my beau. Aren’t you my beau, Hare?”

“You bet.”
“Couldn’t your brother really be your beau just because he’s your brother?”
“I don’t know.”
“Sure you know. Couldn’t you be my beau, Hare, if I was old enough and if you
wanted to?”
“Sure. You’re my girl now.”
“Am I really your girl?”
“Do you love me?”
“Uh, huh.”
“Do you love me always?”
“Will you come over and watch me play indoor?”
“Aw, Hare, you don’t love me. If you loved me, you’d want to come over and
watch me play indoor.”
Krebs’s mother came into the dining-room from the kitchen. She carried a plate
with two fried eggs and some crisp bacon on it and a plate of buckwheat cakes.
“You run along, Helen,” she said. “I want to talk to Harold.”
She put the eggs and bacon down in front of him and brought in a jug of maple
syrup for the buckwheat cakes. Then she sat down across the table from Krebs.
“I wish you’d put down the paper a minute, Harold,” she said.
Krebs took down the paper and folded it.
“Have you decided what you are going to do yet, Harold?” his mother said, taking
off her glasses.

“No,” said Krebs.
“Don’t you think it’s about time?” His mother did not say this in a mean way. She
seemed worried.
“I hadn’t thought about it,” Krebs said.
“God has some work for every one to do,” his mother said. “There can be no idle
hands in His Kingdom.”
“I’m not in His Kingdom,” Krebs said.
“We are all of us in His Kingdom.”
Krebs felt embarrassed and resentful as always.
“I’ve worried about you too much, Harold,” his mother went on. “I know the
temptations you must have been exposed to. I know how weak men are. I know
what your own dear grandfather, my own father, told us about the Civil War and I
have prayed for you. I pray for you all day long, Harold.”
Krebs looked at the bacon fat hardening on his plate.
“Your father is worried, too,” his mother went on. “He thinks you have lost your
ambition, that you haven’t got a definite aim in life. Charley Simmons, who is just
your age, has a good job and is going to be married. The boys are all settling
down; they’re all determined to get somewhere; you can see that boys like Charley
Simmons are on their way to being really a credit to the community.”
Krebs said nothing.
“Don’t look that way, Harold,” his mother said. “You know we love you and I
want to tell you for your own good how matters stand. Your father does not want
to hamper your freedom. He thinks you should be allowed to drive the car. If you
want to take some of the nice girls out riding with you, we are only too pleased.
We want you to enjoy yourself. But you are going to have to settle down to work,
Harold. Your father doesn’t care what you start in at. All work is honorable as he
says. But you’ve got to make a start at something. He asked me to speak to you
this morning and then you can stop in and see him at his office.”
“Is that all?” Krebs said.
“Yes. Don’t you love your mother dear boy?”
“No,” Krebs said.

His mother looked at him across the table. Her eyes were shiny. She started
“I don’t love anybody,” Krebs said.
It wasn’t any good. He couldn’t tell her, he couldn’t make her see it. It was silly to
have said it. He had only hurt her. He went over and took hold of her arm. She
was crying with her head in her hands.
“I didn’t mean it,” he said. “I was just angry at something. I didn’t mean I didn’t
love you.”
His mother went on crying. Krebs put his arm on her shoulder.
“Can’t you believe me, mother?”
His mother shook her head.
“Please, please, mother. Please believe me.”
“All right,” his mother said chokily. She looked up at him. “I believe you,
Krebs kissed her hair. She put her face up to him.
“I’m your mother,” she said. “I held you next to my heart when you were a tiny
Krebs felt sick and vaguely nauseated.
“I know, Mummy,” he said. “I’ll try and be a good boy for you.”
“Would you kneel and pray with me, Harold?” his mother asked.
They knelt down beside the dining-room table and Krebs’s mother prayed.
“Now, you pray, Harold,” she said.
“I can’t,” Krebs said.
“Try, Harold.”
“I can’t.”
“Do you want me to pray for you?”

So his mother prayed for him and then they stood up and Krebs kissed his mother
and went out of the house. He had tried so to keep his life from being
complicated. Still, none of it had touched him. He had felt sorry for his mother
and she had made him lie. He would go to Kansas City and get a job and she
would feel all right about it. There would be one more scene maybe before he got
away. He would not go down to his father’s office. He would miss that one. He
wanted his life to go smoothly. It had just gotten going that way. Well, that was
all over now, anyway. He would go over to the schoolyard and watch Helen play
indoor baseball.


LIT1100 Introduction to Literature University of Northwestern – St. Paul
Directions for Literary Analysis Thesis & Outline
The paper requires a formal analysis of the texts, including proper documentation style, but outside sources are not allowed. Failure to provide the conference draft on time will lower your essay’s final grade one level. The essay will be graded according to the quality of your ideas and their formal presentation, including editing.
Thesis Statement The central idea will appear as the thesis statement in your paper. The thesis, which should be included in your introduction, will be composed of three parts:  Title and author (unless previously stated in the introduction): Remember
that titles of poems and short stories are in quotation marks, and titles of plays and novels are in italics.
 Assertion: the interesting, insightful, possibly arguable idea about a literary element in the text
 Forecasting statement: a preview of the main topics you will use to develop your thesis.
Sample Thesis Statements: Character: In Susan Glaspell’s Trifles, the protagonist Minnie Wright changes from passivity to destructive assertiveness. This change in character is indicated by her clothing, her dead canary, and her unfinished patchwork quilt.
Setting: In “The Cask of Amontillado,” Edgar Allan Poe uses many details of setting to create a mood of horror and repulsion; his readers are both fascinated and repulsed by the mood of ghastliness and heartlessness that the author establishes through his vivid descriptions of underground rooms, space, and sound.
Theme: In “The Story of an Hour,” Kate Chopin uses the foreshadowing of a spring setting, the transformation in the protagonist’s feelings, and the ironic ending to suggest that an individual’s need for self-assertion or personal freedom is even more basic than his or her need for love.
Plot: In “The Demon Lover,” Elizabeth Bowen crafts a plot that manipulates the readers’ emotions of fear and suspense; her deliberate and clever use of foreshadowing, conflict, and flashbacks heightens the readers’ feelings of anxiety and dread, which she leaves ultimately unresolved even at the end of the story.
*Review my feedback on your topic assignment before finalizing your thesis statement.

LIT1100 Introduction to Literature University of Northwestern – St. Paul
Formulating the Literary Essay Outline Once you have an approved topic (central idea) for your paper, the next step is to consider the organization of your paper and to gather your textual support. Create an outline based on the forecasting statement used for your thesis. Outlining is helpful for reading because it helps you to better understand the content and structure of the text. It is helpful for writing essays as it helps you to think through the general structure that your essay will take. Begin by jotting down the textual support you might be able to use under each main point. Review the example below:
Example Thesis In Susan Glaspell’s Trifles, the protagonist Minnie Wright changes from passivity to destructive assertiveness. This change in character is indicated by her clothing, her dead canary, and her unfinished patchwork quilt.
First point: Minnie Wright’s clothing, past and present, indicates her changing from a person of charm to a person of neglect and passive acceptance of her situation.
-wore attractive and colorful dresses as a young woman (134) -was “young and sweet” then (135) -now asks only for an apron and a shawl (137) -reflects drab life and suggests suppression of her spirit (138)
Second Point: Minnie Wright’s dead canary reveals her changing from a passive person to one of rage.
-she had loved music as a young girl (133) -during her cheerless marriage, the bird provided hope (135) -the death of the bird and its burial box reflects her anger (135)
Third Main Point: …
General Guidelines:
1) Use a formal, multi-leveled outline with roman (I, II) and Arabic (1, 2) numerals together with capital and lowercase letters.
2) Be detailed enough for me to see where you think you will be headed in this essay (Don’t worry; I know some things will change, but I just want to force you to think through what you might be writing to ensure you are on the right track.).
3) Don’t write full sentences in your outline – be concise but specific!

LIT1100 Introduction to Literature University of Northwestern – St. Paul
Literary Essay Structure:
I. Introductory Paragraph
A. Attention Getting Sentences: entice the reader to want to read more of your essay. Can be
a brief anecdote, a very compelling question, a shocking statement, etc. relating to your topic. This piece will be several sentences because you will provide some background information to tie the attention-getter to the thesis statement.
B. Thesis Statement: This is the main point of your essay, and it should be clearly stated. The
entire essay will attempt to prove this point.
C. Forecasting statement: This is a clear and concise statement (or statements) that explains how the thesis will be supported or proven. (If the thesis is where your essay is going, the forecasting points that make up your statement are how you will get there.)
II. Body: the number of main points will depend on how you organize your thoughts. Also, you might include a counterargument as a main point to counter-argue a different assertion that you believe several of your readers might believe (see “The Misfit” example outline and essay).
A. First Main Point: begin with the first main point you identify in your plan of coherence.
1. Supporting details / Specific “proof” of your topic sentence point
2. Supporting details / Specific “proof” of your topic sentence point
3. Supporting details / Specific “proof” of your topic sentence point
B. Second Main Point: begin with the first main point you identify in your plan of coherence.
1. Supporting details / Specific “proof” of your topic sentence point
2. Supporting details / Specific “proof” of your topic sentence point
3. Supporting details / Specific “proof” of your topic sentence point
* Each main point might be of different lengths. One main point might only be one paragraph while others might span several paragraphs.
III. Concluding Paragraph
A. Restate thesis and forecasting statement in different words
B. General statements about topic
C. Clincher statement that concludes entire paper in a strong, memorable way and may refer
back to attention getter (“framing” effect)

LIT1100 Introduction to Literature University of Northwestern – St. Paul
Example Literary Essay Outline for “The Misfit” Student Sample Essay: *Note: ellipses indicate text that has been omitted for brevity in this example. Your outline is expected to have every point detailed with intended support.
I. Introduction
A. In every great story there are characters that battle for an epic outcome ….
B. Thesis: The Misfit displays characteristics more prominent of a protagonist than of an antagonist.
C. Forecasting: He, in essence, represents the very moral of the story, and in the end is the most dynamic character. The Misfit’s ironic but truthful spiritual revelations, the f Plagiarism Free Papers
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