Answer FOUR questions. Each question is worth 10 points.
What are some of the features of Plato’s theory of justice as set out in his Republic? How can these features of justice be applied to the opposed views on distributive justice according to the positions developed by Rawls and Nozick?
Explain Aristotle’s three-way distinction of human action as a) voluntary, b) involuntary and c) non-voluntary. Give examples of each kind of action. How can Aristotle’s theory of human agency be applied to the three models of punishment: retributivism, deterrence, and rehabilitation.
Explain the nature and role of ‘moral sentiment’ in Hume’s outline of morality. What role, if any, is played by reason in Hume’s account of moral action? In light of Hume’s theory, reconstruct the debate between Singer and Arthur.
Explain Kant’s two formulations of the ‘categorical imperative’ according to a) universalizability and b) non-instrumentalization. How might these formulations be applied to the question of preemptive international conflict. Give examples to illustrate these applications.
What is Mill’s concept of the basic ethical principle according to utilitarianism and what is his proof of this principle? What are Mill’s views on the freedom of speech and thought and how do these shed light on the debate about pornography between Altman and Brison?