Do you classmate response to the two classmates post

Do you classmate response to the two classmates post

Do you classmate response to the two classmates post

Each response needs to be two 5 sentence  paragraphs



Nicole Based on the provided information, why is the flu vaccine still the best protection against influenza? There are two different types of flu vaccines. There is an inactivated viral strain that does not cause disease in the host because they are physically or chemically deactivated. The other option for a flu vaccine is the attenuated viral strain. The downside of attenuated viral strain vaccine is that it is a weakened strain of the virus that could cause disease in immune compromised individuals. Both of these flu vaccines are important to help avoid pandemics through herd immunity. Every year, the CDC estimates which strand of the influenza virus will be circulating during which season and produces the vaccine that will be well matched in order to reduce the likelihood of infection. The work the CDC does in order to estimate which strand of the virus will be present when, is very important. There are 3 main types of influenza that can infect a human, but even more, there are subtypes for each type. The RNA genome for influenza can mutate quickly, and because of this, the CDC has to monitor the virus regularly in order to adjust vaccines to combat any mutations that do occur. Each new flu vaccine is made to protect against 3 or 4 viruses that may arise during the flu season. Why is the flu vaccine still the best protection against influenza? If a patient is given the live attenuated vaccine, the patient is exposed to the closest form of the actual pathogen that would be encountered in nature, meaning the immunological response to the pathogen is strong and will develop a strong memory and various B and T cells are activated which allows for an even more substantial, longer-lasting form of protection. If an inactivated vaccine is used the pathogens are killed as a means to reduce the likelihood of infection while still allowing the immune system to respond. If the body is able to develop a strong immunity to a pathogen, then it is able to prevent infection at a later date, and also help to prevent any mutations that may occur. While all of this is important, it is also contributing to herd immunity which helps the immune compromised community at a lower risk for infection. There are other drugs that are used as antivirals that are currently approved by the CDC to help treat Influenza A and B. The drugs work by attacking the virus, acting as an NA spike inhibitor and prevents it from multiplying. By doing so, it reduces the symptoms related to the flu and helps the immune system to fight the virus by stopping it from overwhelming the immune system. These drugs have shown great promise in reducing the symptoms associated with the flu if administered within 48 hours of initial symptoms, and has also shown to be beneficial in the protection against the flu if administered immediately after exposure to the pathogen. While these antiviral drugs are very useful in the protection and reduction of symptoms, it is not the most effective way to protect one-self from the influenza virus. After a patient is exposed to the vaccine it can take approximately two weeks for the immune system to develop a strong immunological response to the pathogen. In doing so, the human body can protect itself and create a memory allowing it to fight the pathogen more easily. Text: Microbiology: Basic and Clinical Principles; 1st Edition. Norman-McKay pages 411-412, 475-476 CDC: Inactivated Influenza VIS: U.S.FDA: Tamiflu: Consumer Questions and Answers:


pg. 478- Universal flu vaccine Universal flu vaccine, how does it work? Are there any updates or current events? Influenza is a viral strain that directly affects the lungs and whose symptoms mimic a severe infection and cold. The flu strains function by binding to ciliated cells in the upper respiratory tract and infecting the host. If left untreated, the flu can be accompanied by by serious infections like pneumonia and even lead to death. The highest recorded death toll was about 56,000 deaths in the 2012-2013 season. There are three different flu viruses that can affect humans: type A, B, and C. According to the CDC findings, different strains can be more deadly than others. When type A strains is more prominent in flu season, there have been higher mortality rates than other strains. While type B strains tend to be historically less impactful. The most effective method of treating the flu is to receive an injectable vaccine. These injectible vaccines contain at a minimum three inactive viral flu strains. Due to the vaccine containing inactive strains, people often have a misconception that they get the flu from the vaccine. There have been decades of data and research that confirm that this is false because it does not contain active viral particals. Although the data also shows that the vaccine is an effective preventive health measure, it does not always ensure that a patient will not still get the flu. The injectible flu vaccine is made up of inactive viral flu strains that are an educated guess at which strain will be more predominate that year. There have been cases where a unexpected strain has circulated causing more people to become infected with the flu. When well matched to circulating strains, the CDC estimates that the vaccine provides a 60 percent change of reduced risk to the population. Since the flu shot is an educated guess at best, there has been research in recent years to produce a universal vaccine. The Influenza Genome Sequecing Project was launched in 2004 to characterize flu sequences that infect humans, birds, and pigs. By comparing the different strains, it was discovered that the protein part of the virus were less likely to undergo mutation. These protein segments then became the ideal target for the production of a universal vaccine. Other methods involve targeting the T cell response in a effort to neutralize CD4+ and CD8+ cell responses as well as helping to train the immune system to target regions of influenza in the body. If the universal vaccine is as effective as the recent studies suggest, the shot would operate much like a measles vaccine where a patient would only receive it once and maintain it with periodic boosters. The University of Oxford’s Department of Zoology has successfully demonstrated pre-clinical effectiveness for the universal vaccine with a study involving mice in 2018. Kelsey Bond Sources: Normal-McKary, L. (2018). Microbiology: Basic and Clinical Principals, 1st ed. New York: Pearson, p. 476-479


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