Case Study Diabetes

 
Requirements:
 
Content Criteria:
 

Read the case study listed below.
 
 
Utilizing the Week 6 Case Study Template (Links to an external site.), provide your responses to the case study questions listed below.
 
You must use at least one scholarly reference to provide pathophysiology statements. For this class, use of the textbook for pathophysiology statements is acceptable. You may also use an appropriate evidence-based journal.
 
You must use the current Clinical Practice Guideline (CPG) for the Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes -Abridged for Primary Care Providers provided by the American Diabetes Association to determine the patient’s type of diabetes and answer the treatment recommendation questions. The most current guideline can be found at the following web address:
 
 https://professional.diabetes.org/content-page/practice-guidelines-resources (Links to an external site.). At the website, locate the current yearâ€s CPG for use.
 
Proper APA format (in-text citations, reference page, spelling, English language, and grammar) must be used.
 

Case Study Scenario
 
Chief Complaint:
 
J.T. is a 48-year old male who presents to the primary care clinic with fatigue, weight loss, and extreme thirst and increased appetite.
 
History of Present Illness:
J.T. has been in his usual state of health until three weeks ago when he began experiencing symptoms of fatigue, weight loss, and extreme thirst. He reports that he would like to begin a walking program, but he feels too fatigued to walk at any point during the day. Now he is very concerned about gaining more weight since he is eating more. He reports insomnia due to having to get up and urinate greater than 4 times per night.
 
Past Medical History :
Hypertension

Hyperlipidemia
Obesity
 

Family History

Both parents deceased
Brother: Type 2 diabetes
 

Social History

Denies smoking
Denies alcohol or recreational drug use
Landscaper
 

Allergies

No Known Drug Allergies
 

Medications

Lisinopril 20 mg once daily by mouth
Atorvastatin 20 mg once daily by mouth
Aspirin 81 mg once daily by mouth
Multivitamin once daily by mouth
 

Review of Systems

Constitutional: – fever, – chills, – weight loss.
Neurological: denies dizziness or disorientation
HEENT: Denies nasal congestion, rhinorrhea or sore throat.
Chest: (-)Tachypnea. Denies cough.
Heart: Denies chest pain, chest pressure or palpitations.
Lymph: Denies lymph node swelling.
 

General Physical Exam  

Constitutional: Alert and oriented male in no acute distress
Vital Signs: BP-136/80, T-98.6 F, P-78, RR-20
Wt. 240 lbs., Ht. 5’8″, BMI 36.5
 

HEENT 

Eyes: Pupils equal, round and reactive to light and accommodation, normal conjunctiva.
Ears: Tympanic membranes intact.
Nose: Bilateral nasal turbinates without redness or swelling. Nares patent.
Mouth: Oropharynx clear. No mouth lesions. Teeth present and intact; Oral mucous membranes and lips dry.
 

Neck/Lymph Nodes 

Neck supple without JVD.
No lymphadenopathy, masses or carotid bruits.
 

Lungs 

Bilateral breath sounds clear throughout lung fields. Breathing quality deep with fruity breath odor
 

Heart 

S1 and S2 regular rate and rhythm; – tachycardia; no rubs or murmurs.

Integumentary System 

Skin warm, dry; Nail beds pink without clubbing.

 
Integumentary System 

Skin warm, dry; Nail beds pink without clubbing.
 

Labs
 
Test        Patientâ€s Result.   Reference
Glucose (fasting)
132
60-120 mg/dL
 
BUN
20
7-24 mg/dL
 
Creatinine
0.8
0.7-1.4 mg/dL
 
Sodium
141
135-145 mEq/L
 
Potassium
3.7
3.5-5.0 mEq/L
 
Chloride
97
95-105 mEq/L
 
HCO3
24
22-28 mEq/L
 
A1C
7.2
 
Urinalysis
Protein            Negative
Glucose.         Positive
Ketones          Negative
 
Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)
220 mg/dL
 
J.T. is diagnosed with diabetes. Review all information provided in the case to answer the following questions.
 
Case Study Questions
 
Pathophysiology & Clinical Findings of the Disease
 

1. Review the lab findings and decide if the diagnosis is Type 2 or Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.
 
2. Explain the pathophysiology associated with your chosen diagnosis
 
3. Identify at least three subjective findings from the case which support the chosen diagnosis.
 
4. Identify at least three objective findings from the case which support the chosen diagnosis.
 

Management of the Disease
 
*Utilize the required Clinical Practice Guideline (CPG) to support your treatment recommendations.  https://professional.diabetes.org/content-page/practice-guidelines-resources (Links to an external site.). At the website, locate the current yearâ€s CPG for use.

 
1. Identify two (2) “Evidence A” recommended medication classes for the treatment of this condition and provide an example (drug name) for each.
 
2. Describe the mechanism of action for each of the medication classes identified above.
 
3. Identify two (2) “Evidence A” recommended non-pharmacological treatment options for this patient.
 
4.Utilizes the required Clinical Practice Guideline (CPG) to support the chosen treatment recommendations

 
 
Book:
 
McCance, S.H. K. Pathophysiology. [Bookshelf Ambassadored]. Retrieved from https://ambassadored.vitalsource.com/#/books/9780323583473/
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