Previous assignments attached. Please reference the book as much as possibly. Link below.
Spend some time reflecting upon all that you have learned throughout the quarter in this course. Imagine that you have been in a management position for a few years and received a promotion to become an upper-level manager. Prior to receiving this promotion you managed a team that overcame conflict, but still needs some work.
In a 2 page paper, based on the subjects covered throughout the quarter, what conflict resolution advice would you give to the person who will be replacing you (minimum of 5 pieces of advice)? Use proper spelling, grammar, and punctuation. Cite your sources for your pieces of advice.
Reading – Essentials of Negotiation, Chapters 11-12
Culture. What are your thoughts when you hear this word? What images does it invoke? Culture, for our purposes in this course, refers to the shared values, beliefs, and behaviors of a group of people. Often times, when people think of culture they equate it to a country, when in reality, countries can have many varying cultures living within its borders. The United States is a prime example of being a melting pot of not only cultures, but subcultures which are a group having social, economic, ethnic, or other traits distinctive enough to distinguish it from others within the same culture or society.
When it comes to conflict or negotiations, you are already dealing with people who not only have a differing view on a subject, but might also be from different cultures. While we embrace the positive impacts of diversity in the workplace, it can lead to issues when one party does not understand the cultural differences of another party at the table. It can also lead to one party underestimating the variances amongst a particular culture by committing cultural attribution error. As the global marketplace continues to expand it is important for managers to understand the intricacies of dealing with conflict and negotiations in an international setting.
In your preparations for negation or conflict resolution, you should review the following ways in which culture can impact the process and the outcome:
Distributive versus Integrative driven culture: Does this culture perceive negotiations or conflict resolutions from a win-win or winner takes all mentality?
Important Parties: How does the particular culture prefer to be represented at the negotiation table? Who should you deal with based on their ideals of who is important to the process?
Formality: The United States is rather casual when it comes to negotiation dealings. Research the culture that you will be negotiating or engaging in conflict resolution. How do they prefer to be addressed, what is the proper setting for the meeting, etc.?
Communication: Be aware of your verbal and nonverbal communications during the process. Hand signals, folding of arms, nodding of the head at the wrong time can be misconstrued as something different in another culture. Again, a little research will go a long way in avoiding a communication blunder which may be received as offensive.
Emotions: Different cultures show or express their emotions in a variety of ways. In some cultures there will be a definitive lack of emotion expressed during the negotiation or conflict resolution process while contrasted to other cultures that are more animated and expressive.
While the above is not an exhaustive list of how one should plan when dealing with an international/cross-cultural negotiation or conflict, a common thread is that research about the culture will best clue you in on how to properly proceed with a negotiation. If you offend a party from the beginning, it will be rather hard to get them to view your side of an issue or respect your thoughts during the process.
Gender as a difference
While on the subject of culture and diversity in negotiations and conflict, one variance that sometimes gets overlooked as a diverse factor is the gender difference between the parties and the cultural implications that it might add to the conflict. Men and women tend to react differently to conflict. In some cultures, women are not allowed to speak for themselves, but must have a male speak on their behalf. Just as it is important to understand cultural differences, it is equally important to understand gender differences during negotiations and conflict resolution.
In the beginning of this course, you were asked to give your gut reaction to the word conflict. During the course, how have your ideas or opinions toward the subject changed? In a seemingly short amount of time, you have covered quite a bit of territory when it comes to this subject of conflicts and negotiations:
An Introduction to Negotiation
Strategy and Planning for a Negotiation or Conflict Resolution
Perception, Cognition, and Emotion and its Impact on the Negotiation Process
Communication and Conflict Resolution
Finding and Using Negotiation Power
Ethics in Negotiation
Relationships in Negotiation
Multiple Parties and Teams
International, Cross-Cultural, and Gender in Negotiation
Best Practices in Negotiations
As future managers it is vital to continue to hone and practice your negotiation and conflict resolution skills. Whether you are an active party to the negotiation or acting as the neutral third party to a conflict between your subordinates, you now understand the importance of proper preparation and strategizing before heading to the negotiation table. Through this course you gained a toolbox in which you can pull from as you prepare for the negotiation. On a final note, being ethical in your negotiations or conflict resolutions will be your most powerful tool.
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