answer questions below 107

Answer the 3 question below and reply to each student.
Student Reply must be over 150 words.
Make sure all student replies you start it with Hello (Student Name),
Question 1:
Prior to beginning work on this discussion please review your readings for the week and the following sources: The Anatomy of a Discussion Board (Links to an external site.) and Critical Thinking: A Guide to Skillful Reasoning (Links to an external site.). Finally, remember that the HIS103 Research Guide: Library Resources and Primary Sources may assist you in finding additional sources.
This week, we have examined state building across the world, ranging across Asia, Africa, the Americas, and Europe, along with the interconnections across and between these societies. These multiple examples allow us to consider the strategies powerful states used to create, expand, and defend their rule. For this discussion, you will compare and contrast the societies you have chosen to explain how they sought to gain, expand, or maintain their power.
First, select two societies from among those found in this weekâ€s textbook readings.
Next, select two of the following categories:

Political organization
Social organization
Gender roles or expectations
Religious or ethical principles
Economic policies
Diplomacy / Alliances
Warfare (either to attack or defend from attack)
Technological advances

How did the societies you have chosen use the strategies you have selected to create, expand, or maintain their power? Remember to use the organizational principles from your Week 3 Assignment to develop your initial post of at least 300 words. Supply specific examples drawn from course materials, sources produced by your own research, or sources included in the collaborative annotated bibliography to support your position. Cite and format all sources according to APA style guidelines as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center, using both in-text citations and providing full references at the bottom of your post. Consult the HIS103 The Dawn of the Early Modern Age Tour (Links to an external site.) for additional sources.
Student Reply 1:Dawson
The Two societies I am going to talk about today are the two I will be discussing in my final project, Islam (State of Medina) and Medieval Europe. I also chose on this discussion to talk about the Trade these two civilizations have along with their ethical principles. Though very similar in many ways both Islam and Medieval Europe found their own unique ways to handle life in their communities.
Starting with Medina and their Religious or ethical principles. Mahammad is the man who came into this land and took over rule, There was a small community of Muslim already in Medina so his fallowers were able to reach Medina and practice their worship which created a safe place for other believers to move and practice the faith, also to be close to their Prophet Mahammad. (Abbott & Mahdavi, 2018)The society is based around a Holy Bible called “ Qurâ€an” in this book it states everything they are to do in their everyday life, from work, to how to pray to Mecca, how to dress, marriage, and so on. (Abbott & Mahdavi, 2018)They also (much like the five commandments in Christian belief have what they call “The Five Pillars of Islam” this states the five most important ways to properly live life in Islamic way, a few examples are: Top of the list number one- Profession of Faith (Shahada) “There is no God but God”. Two- Prayer (Salat) “Muslims are to pray facing Mecca Five times a day, Dawn, Noon, Mid-afternoon, Sunset, and After Dark.” (The Met, 2000-2020) These two laws set by the Qurâ€an are just some of the many religious principles found by Mahammad.
There is many more rules and guidelines set in place specifically through the Qurâ€an such as buying and selling. In the “Manual of Hadith” it sends us the rules set aside for “Bai” which means “buying and selling” (Ali, 1944) trade to the men and woman of Islam. Like everything else in Medina “Bai” is a sacred and holy bidding. The people of Medina faced a large amount of back lash with neighboring societies due to their faith. (Abbott & Mahdavi, 2018) The trader is a Servant of Allah; there therefore the trade must be good and fair. (Ali, 1944) Much of the information found about trade is found in what was called “ The constitution of Medina” which is not exactly a reliable source since there is a lot of skepticism of truth about the “Constitution of Medina” (Marayati, 2013) Though I am still working on trying to find exactly who and how the People of Medina traded goods with, I have found that again in the “Manual of Hadith” that ““Najsh” otherwise known as deceiving a purchaser through a third party is forbidden.” (Ali, 1944) From my personal understanding this means that the people of Medina where told to be fair and righteous people, they were to not go over a limit when it came to their selling of goods.
Moving onto Medieval Europe, Christianity was widespread throughout the area with Paganism and even Muslim religions, but Catholic ministering became a high rise in later Eastern Europe. (Abbott & Mahdavi, 2018) Much like the people in Medina Medieval Europe was founded much around there religious beliefs. Though in Europe they based their structure on religious Hierarchies such as The Pope, Cardinals, Bishops and so forth. (Abbott & Mahdavi, 2018) The people who taught and converted to the catholic church became missionaries to recruit more people to these belief systems. (Abbott & Mahdavi, 2018) the rise of the catholic church spread widely though out Europe connecting the people together by faith making societies larger in scale. So much that the church even took control over a vast majority of land. (Abbott & Mahdavi, 2018) this brings us to how trade managed through out the society.
The larger the communities spread through the church the easier trade became through out Europe. Markets, and festivals were some of the ways people surrounding their closest town would be able to get their personal goods. This was generally organized through monasteries, estate owners, and town councils (Cartwright, 2019) They would sell trade of meat, furs, spices, and even slaves through out the communities and to the Byzantines, Levant, and the Venetians. (Cartwright, 2019) the smaller the value of the goods was more common to be found throughout the festivals and markets, while larger scaled goods were sold through “Trades people.” (Cartwright, 2019) It seems that once the Catholic church started taking over the societies, they became more organized and more trade towns and people were easier to come by.
Abbott & Mahdavi (2018) World History, The Human Experience to 1600 (Second Edition). Byzantium and religious and Political change in Medieval Europe (325-1200 CE). (5.3)
Abbott & Mahdavi (2018) World History, The Human Experience to 1600 (Second Edition) Islamic Civilization. (Ca. 600-1600 CE.). (6.1 & 6.2)
Ali, MA.LL.B. (1944) A Manual of Hadtih, (By Mahammad Ali, MA.LL.B. (XX,) Received on March 25, 2020. (Links to an external site.)
Marayati, (February 8,2013) The Medina constitution, (part one), Islamic education MPAC National, Retrieved from:
(Links to an external site.)
The Met, (200-2020) The Five Pillars of Islam, Retrieved on March 31, 2020, Received from:… (Links to an external site.)
Cartwright, M. (January 8, 2019) Trade in Medeval Europe, Ancient History Encyclopedia, Retrieved on March 31, 2020,…
Student Reply 2:Quinton
The Aztecs and Ottoman Empire thrived and survived by conquering other nations through warfare to perpetuate their existence by obtaining tribute, but they utilized their gifts in alternate methods. Both civilizations implemented their military strength to gain power over others and acquire subordinates for goods and services through forced methods of diplomacy (Gregory-Abbott & Mahdavi, 2018). One of the primary methods that the Ottoman Empire sustained their power and influence over those they conquered was demanding tribute from Christian civilizations. As illustrated by Gregory-Abbott and Mahdavi (2018), Ottomans brought hundreds of young boys, ranging from the ages of six to fifteen, to convert to Islam and undergo intense physical and mental training. Through the course of training, they could become high-ranking members of their military, or administrators and governors (BBC, 2009; Gregory-Abbott & Mahdavi, 2018). While assessing the Aztecs, they also demanded tribute from other societies they vanquished; however, humans usually became sacrifices to appease their gods or conducted slave labor. The Aztecs also acquired food and other objects of material wealth as tribute (Gregory-Abbott & Mahdavi, 2018). Moreover, the Aztecs solidified their rule over other nations by marrying their victorious warriors to members of the elite families of their allies (Gregory-Abbott & Mahdavi, 2018). Thus, establishing a prominent partnership and developing prominent high-ranking military.
Moving onward, their religious practices remained relatively different as well. Even though the Aztec and Ottoman Empires were religious societies, their views exhibited monumental contrast. For instance, the Aztecs were polytheistic and believed that human sacrifice was necessary to appease their gods, specifically the sun god, through acts of providing blood (Gregory-Abbott & Mahdavi, 2018). Not only did they sacrifice human beings so the sun would continue to rise each day, members of the royal family, as well as priests, participated in bloodletting, which was a form of self-sacrificing oneâ€s blood. On the opposite side of the spectrum, the Ottoman Empire exhibited multiple religions but encouraged Islam. The Ottoman Empire consisted of monotheistic religions, such as Islam and Judaism, as well as multiple forms of Christianity, including Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholic, and Armenian (Gregory-Abbott & Mahdavi, 2018). BBC (2009) further illustrates that non-Muslims became able to possess minute levels of power within their communities, but remained at the mercy of the government. Moreover, as previously mentioned, Christian societies had to provide male children to fill the ranks of the Ottoman military or government positions after converting to Islam. However, many of the converts, known as devshirme, became able to attain high socio-economic status within the Ottoman Empire as members of the government or elite military squads because of their intense loyalty to the sultan (BBC, 2009; Gregory-Abbott & Mahdavi, 2018).
BBC. (2009, September 4). Ottoman Empire (1301-1922).…
Gregory-Abbott, C., & Mahdavi, F. (2018). World history: The human experience to 1600 (2nd ed.).
Question 2:
Prior to beginning work on this discussion, please review your readings for the week, and the following sources: The Anatomy of a Discussion Board (Links to an external site.) and Critical Thinking: A Guide to Skillful Reasoning (Links to an external site.). Finally, remember that the HIS103 Research Guide: Library Resources and Primary Sources may assist you in finding additional sources.
We have studied the rise of famous civilizations. Now, we will utilize what we have learned, as well as what a famous historian named Collingwood called historical imagination, to make some forecasts about our future. In one or two paragraphs (totaling at least 250 words), address at least one of the following questions:

Do you think civilization is worth the price in blood and treasure?
Are cultures that do not have cities inherently better off?
Are we destined to live in cities forever?
How can humans enjoy the benefits of urban life without crowding, crime, and alienation?
How can we use history to inform our vision of the future?
How might the sense of cultural perspective youâ€ve gained from this class and the idea of historical imagination inform your thinking within the context of your chosen profession

Student Reply 3: Tyler
Hello Class,
The question I wish to address for this weekâ€s discussion is
How can we use history to inform our vision of the future?
In a speech to the house of commons in 1948, Sir Winston Churchill once said that “those who fail to learn from history are condemned to repeat it.” If you look at the past, there have been many civilizations that have come and gone. All were either conquered or failed to learn from history and were destroyed in the process. We can use the lessons learned from the past to help shape our future. I believe teaching history as it happened and not leave anything out is a great way to start. By teaching history as it happened, future generations can learn from the previous generationâ€s mistakes. We now have the internet to help us with this. The internet is a great way to record and document the history and get it to the masses. When I went to school, we had old textbooks that either didnâ€t teach everything that happened or were so old that it didnâ€t even have some of the newer things that have happened, such as 9/11. The more that we as humans know about our past and history, the better off we will be. Knowing where our roots come from and how the concept was conceived will be what makes the future move forward and create a better
understanding of what has transpired. I believe this will help future societies learn from the past and will not be doomed to repeat it.
Student Reply 4:Andrew
The question I want to address is are we destined to live in cities forever. What a timely question. If I had been asked this question a month ago, I would have said of course. But given the current state of affairs in the world it makes me wonder what the lasting effect of COVID-19 will be. With technology and the internet over the last 20 or so years, we have connected more as a global society, but become individually more isolated physically. Now we are encouraged to be more isolated physically. The invention of the car allowed us to expand outside of the city and commute into work in the city. Technology coupled with social distancing may lead to a society where we avoid the city for both work and housing.
That being said, I donâ€t think cities will go away. But having said that, I guess I canâ€t think of a reason why I say that. This class has taught me that civilizations came together for a few different reasons. When we think of commerce and trade, at one point, cities were needed because that was were these things could be traded and acquired. Currently for many people in America at least, we are ordering goods via delivery service. Civilizations also joined together to worship. Even the idea of congregating to worship is now being challenged.
Humans are social creatures. Were cities created out of a tangible need for goods and services? If that is solely the case, then we might see the decline of cities and maybe the notion of a city altogether. But I tend to believe that after thousands of years, there is something more ingrained in us that makes us flock together. Whichever answer eventually turns out to be correct, I think weâ€ll have a better guess on that answer a few years from now.
Question 3:
This course has taken you through the development of complex civilizations from their origins in the river valleys of China and the Near East through the global empires of the 16th century. Along the way, you have considered patterns of interaction within and between societies that affect political, economic, social, ethical, religious, and cultural systems. Now, for your Final Project, you will have an opportunity to focus on two societies or civilizations of your choice. You will do your own research to find relevant scholarly secondary sources and primary sources, then develop an in-depth analysis of the ways these societies or civilizations compare and contrast, based on your assessment of the main overarching themes of the course and your research findings.
The purpose of the Final Project is for you to demonstrate the learning achieved in the course by creating an original work based on your analysis of scholarly secondary sources (see the Scholarly, Peer-Reviewed, and Other Credible Sources (Links to an external site.) table for assistance) and primary sources. The HIS103 Research Guide: Library Resources and Primary Sources can be accessed through your online classroom, and it provides links to relevant books, articles, and primary sources.
Your original work can be one of the options in the list provided below. You are encouraged to think openly and choose a format in which you can express yourself most effectively.
Choose one of the options below to complete your Final Project:

A six-page research paper.
A 12-slide PowerPoint presentation (see How to Make a PowerPoint Presentation (Links to an external site.) for assistance) or Prezi that includes detailed notes (see Create and Print Notes Pages (Links to an external site.) for assistance), or has audio recorded on each slide with a transcript of all audio (see Record a Slide Show With Narration and Slide Timings (Links to an external site.) for assistance).
A six- to 10-minute video production with a transcript. This could be a recorded video of a presentation on the topic to YouTube (see Upload Videos: Android (Links to an external site.) or Upload Videos: iPhone & iPad (Links to an external site.) for assistance) or a recorded PowerPoint through Screencast-O-Matic.

Note: Transcripts are basically your scripts that you will read for your presentations, plus any additional dialog and descriptive information that will help others understand your work clearly. In PowerPoint, scripts are added as “Speaker Notes.” See this example for more information and the Print Speaker Notes (Links to an external site.) reference for help in printing speaker notes as transcripts.
Keep in mind that the Ashford Writing Center and Ashford University Library have many additional resources available to you, which you are also encouraged to explore. The Ashford Writing Center has two kinds of tutoring available to you:

Live Chat—If you have writing-related questions about a topic before you draft a discussion post or submit a written assignment, you will now be able to chat live with a tutor for up to 20 minutes. Live Chat will be available Monday through Friday from 10:00 a.m. to 11:00 a.m. and from 4:00 p.m. to 5:00 p.m. (PST).
Email Paper Review—If you have a draft, partial draft, or are just having trouble getting started, you can complete a submission form and email your paper to the AWC for review.

Writing tutors will do their best to return your paper with their comments within 48 hours, not including Saturdays and Sundays. Please plan accordingly if you would like to receive feedback before an assignment due date.Refer to the HIS103 Final Project Help Sheet for additional help and guidance in completing your Final Project.

Writing specialists are here 24/7, every day of the year, ready to support you!

Submitting a Paper to the Writing Center (Links to an external site.)
Using the 24/7 Writing Tutoring (Links to an external site.)
Grammarly (Links to an external site.)
Presentations (Links to an external site.)
Writing A Paper (Links to an external site.)
Ashford University Library 24/7 Chat
Ashford University Library Tutorials

In your Final Project, you must compare two different societies or civilizations that we have covered in this class, within the time period we have considered (ca. 5000 BCE—ca. 1600 CE). You will submit your project by the end of the class. You will also have an opportunity to share your project with your classmates in the Final Project Exhibition discussion.
Refer back to your Final Project Preparation assignment that you completed in Week 3, in which you chose two different societies or civilizations we have covered in this class, as they existed in the time period we have considered (ca. 5000 BCE—ca. 1600 CE). For this assignment, you will further expand the content areas covered in the Final Project Preparation assignment and the HIS103 Final Project Help Sheet by comparing and contrasting your societies or civilizations in at least three of the following categories:

Gender Roles, Ideals, and Relationships: Assess how ideal roles or qualities for men and women were expressed within each society.
Social and Economic Structures: Assess how each society defined different levels of socioeconomic status.
Religious or Ethical Beliefs: Evaluate how core religious or ethical beliefs operated within each society.
Technological or Cultural Innovations: Explain how unique technological or cultural innovations impacted each society.

In your Final Projectâ€s comparative analysis, select two different societies or civilizations within the time frame covered in this course. In your paper,

Define clearly each society or civilization you are comparing and the time period during which you are examining each society or civilization.
Develop a distinct thesis statement that serves as the main idea of your project.
Organize main sections of your work clearly according to the categories that form the basis for your analysis.
Explain the historical context clearly within which you are examining the chosen categories.
Compare and contrast the two societies in regards to the significance of the similarities and/or differences that you find.

You are encouraged (but not required) to share your Final Project
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