Transport costs and international trade
December 31, 2017
Gender Race And Class In The Media
December 31, 2017

Addressing writing prompts on pollution

Address both of the following writing prompts. Your responses to both of your chosen prompts should be at least 500 words each. No title page is needed, but be sure to indicate which writing prompts you are addressing at the top of each response. Each response needs its own reference page.

MEE 6201, Advanced Pollution Prevention 1

Course Description An in-depth study of advanced pollution prevention practices with the preparation of a pollution prevention management plan. Emphasizes methodologies that achieve environmental compliance through less expensive pollution control methods.

Course Textbook Ashby, M. F. (2013). Materials and the environment: Eco-informed material choice (2nd ed.). Waltham, MA: Butterworth-

Heinemann.

Course Learning Outcomes Upon completion of this course, students should be able to:

  1. Describe federal laws related to pollution prevention. 2. Conduct life cycle analyses. 3. Explain pollution prevention audits. 4. Evaluate economics of pollution prevention strategies. 5. Examine impact of corporate philosophy on pollution prevention. 6. Describe pollution prevention strategies for various industries. 7. Identify best available technologies for various industries. 8. Evaluate the impact of pollution prevention on ecosystems and biological communities.

Credits Upon completion of this course, the students will earn three (3) hours of college credit.

Course Structure

  1. Study Guide: Each unit contains a Study Guide that provides students with the learning outcomes, unit lesson, required reading assignments, and supplemental resources.

  2. Learning Outcomes: Each unit contains Learning Outcomes that specify the measurable skills and knowledge students should gain upon completion of the unit.

  3. Unit Lesson: Each unit contains a Unit Lesson, which discusses lesson material. 4. Reading Assignments: Each unit contains Reading Assignments from one or more chapters from the textbook. 5. Suggested Reading: Suggested Readings are listed in Units I-VI and Unit VIII study guides. Students are

encouraged to read the resources listed if the opportunity arises, but they will not be tested on their knowledge of the Suggested Readings.

  1. Discussion Boards: Discussion Boards are part of all CSU term courses. More information and specifications can be found in the Student Resources link listed in the Course Menu bar.

  2. Unit Assignments: Students are required to submit for grading Unit Assignments in Units I-VIII. Specific information and instructions regarding these assignments are provided below. Grading rubrics are included with each assignment. Specific information about accessing these rubrics is provided below.

MEE 6201, Advanced Pollution Prevention Course Syllabus

MEE 6201, Advanced Pollution Prevention 2

  1. Ask the Professor: This communication forum provides you with an opportunity to ask your professor general or course content related questions.

  2. Student Break Room: This communication forum allows for casual conversation with your classmates.

CSU Online Library The CSU Online Library is available to support your courses and programs. The online library includes databases, journals, e-books, and research guides. These resources are always accessible and can be reached through the library webpage. To access the library, log into the myCSU Student Portal, and click on “CSU Online Library.” You can also access the CSU Online Library from the “My Library” button on the course menu for each course in Blackboard. The CSU Online Library offers several reference services. E-mail (library@columbiasouthern.edu) and telephone (1.877.268.8046) assistance is available Monday – Thursday from 8 am to 5 pm and Friday from 8 am to 3 pm. The library’s chat reference service, Ask a Librarian, is available 24/7; look for the chat box on the online library page. Librarians can help you develop your research plan or assist you in finding relevant, appropriate, and timely information. Reference requests can include customized keyword search strategies, links to articles, database help, and other services.

Unit Assignments Unit I Scholarly Activity Select two out of the three writing prompts listed below. Your responses to your two chosen prompts should be at least 500 words each. No title page is needed, but be sure to indicate which writing prompts you are addressing at the top of each response. Each response needs its own reference page. Writing Prompts (respond to two only):

  1. Explain the origin of the federal Pollution Prevention Act, including the year it was passed, events leading to its passage, politics leading up to its passage, by how wide of a vote it was passed, and which president signed it. Please use the CSU Online Library, the Internet, the textbook, and/or other resources to respond. Please cite and reference all sources used.

  2. In Chapters 1 and 2 of the course textbook, Ashby (2013) discusses materials and energy. After studying the

chapters, select four items total (materials and/or energy) where minimal cost pollution prevention efforts can provide the most gain in environmental benefit. Also, discuss which of the laws listed in the Unit I Lesson apply to your selections.

  1. Address one of the five principles described on page 102 of the textbook. In your essay, include the date that the

principle was initiated, events that led to the creation of the principle, the purpose of the principle, your thoughts about the usefulness of the principle, and any recent developments that occurred as a result of the principle.

You are required to use at least your textbook as source material for both of your responses. All sources used, including the textbook, must be referenced; paraphrased and quoted material must have accompanying citations. Information about accessing the Blackboard Grading Rubric for this assignment is provided below. Unit II Scholarly Activity Select two out of the three writing prompts listed below. Your responses to your two chosen prompts should be at least 500 words each. No title page is needed, but be sure to indicate which writing prompts you are addressing at the top of each response. Each response needs its own reference page. Writing Prompts (respond to two only):

  1. Using the life cycle concepts discussed in Chapter 3, select a product, and describe its life cycle.

mailto:library@columbiasouthern.edu
MEE 6201, Advanced Pollution Prevention 3

  1. Imagine that you broke a compact disk (CD) that had music on it. Please respond to the following questions in paragraph form:

 How do you typically dispose of a broken CD?

 Does your community have a means of recycling CDs?

 Considering Figure 4.2 in the textbook, what infrastructure would be needed in your community in order to have the best end of life option, which is reuse? If reuse is not possible, discuss re-engineering, recycling, or combustion as options instead of disposal in a landfill.

 Research the materials that are in a CD. Considering Table 4.1, is recycling a possibility?

  1. Imagine that you have a smart phone that has been crushed and is no longer usable. Please respond to the following questions in paragraph form:

 How would you typically dispose of a broken smart phone?

 Does your community have a means of recycling smart phones?

 Considering Figure 4.2 in the textbook, what infrastructure would be needed in your community in order to have the best end of life option, which is reuse? If reuse is not possible, discuss re-engineering, recycling, combustion as options instead of disposal in a landfill.

 Research the materials that are in a smart phone. Considering Table 4.1, is recycling a possibility? You are required to use at least your textbook as source material for both of your responses. All sources used, including the textbook, must be referenced; paraphrased and quoted material must have accompanying citations. Information about accessing the Blackboard Grading Rubric for this assignment is provided below. Unit III Case Study Select one of the products described in the eco-audit case study in Chapter 8 of your textbook (e.g., cups, grocery bags, electric kettle). Using the data in the textbook from the eco-audit, additional data from Chapter 15 (as necessary), and any additional resources that you find helpful, prepare a pollution prevention audit for the product that you have selected. Base your P2 audit on the steps shown in the Unit III Lesson. You do not need to use all of the P2 audit steps shown in the Unit III Lesson, but use at least three major steps from each phase (a major step being Step 5 rather than Step 5.1). Since you will not be using all of the steps shown in the Unit Lesson, you may re-number them if you wish so that your audit proceeds sequentially without skipping numbers. Your audit should include an introductory paragraph explaining both the purpose of a P2 audit and the reasons for including the steps that you have selected. Your case study must be at least two full pages in length. All sources used, including the textbook, must be referenced; paraphrased and quoted material must have accompanying citations. All references and citations used must be in APA style. The introduction should be formatted in paragraph form, and the steps can be formatted as a list. Information about accessing the Blackboard Grading Rubric for this assignment is provided below. Unit IV Scholarly Activity Address all three of the following writing prompts. Your responses to your three chosen prompts should be at least 350 words each. No title page is needed, but be sure to indicate which writing prompts you are addressing at the top of each response. Each response needs its own reference page. Writing Prompts (respond to all three):

  1. Review the Reading Assignment titled as “Pollution Prevention Practices in Oregon’s Electronics Industry” by Harding and Jones. In your review, include:

 an overview of the article,

 benefits of using pollution prevention in the electronics industry,

 specific process modifications discussed in the article,

MEE 6201, Advanced Pollution Prevention 4

 chemical substitutions mentioned in the article,

 economics of making the suggested changes, and

 reasons companies might not embrace pollution prevention.

  1. Review the Reading Assignment titled as “Optimal Deployment of Emissions Reduction Technologies for Construction Equipment” by Barl, Zietsman, Quadrifoglio, and Farzaneh. In your review:

 Write an overview of the article.

 Describe hydrogen enrichment (HE), selective catalytic reduction (SCR), and fuel additive (FA) technologies.

 Describe the advantages and disadvantages of HE, SCR, and FA, including a discussion of costs.

 Does the computer model do a satisfactory job of determining the best technology? Explain.

 What would be your recommendations as far as which technology (HE, SCR, and/or FA) should be used, or should none be used?

  1. Review the Reading Assignment titled as “Flue Gas Desulfurization: The State of the Art” by Srivastava and

Jozewicz. In your review:

 Write an overview of the article.

 Describe flue gas desulfurization (FGD) at coal-fired power plants and why it is used.

 Explain the details of one once-through process and one regenerable process.

 Summarize the section titled “The MEL [magnesium enhanced slurry] Cost Model.”

 Discuss how the article is useful to a pollution prevention manager.

 Conduct an Internet search to explain the concept of Best Available Technology (BAT) and whether any of the FGD processes described in the article are considered BATs.

You are required to use at least your textbook as source material for all of your responses. All sources used, including the textbook, must be referenced; paraphrased and quoted material must have accompanying citations. Information about accessing the Blackboard Grading Rubric for this assignment is provided below. Unit V Essay Please write an essay about pollution prevention in the dry cleaning and hydraulic fracturing industries. Include the following items:

  1. one-paragraph introduction; 2. five-paragraph review of the Sinshelmer, Grout, Namkoong, Gottlieb, and Latif (2007) dry cleaning article,

including an explanation of the common dry cleaning process using perchloroethylene (PCE), problems with PCE, and a review of options to PCE presented in the paper;

  1. five-paragraph review (total—not five paragraphs for each article) of the Heywood (2012) article and the Chen, Al- Wadei, Kennedy, and Terry (2014) article on hydraulic fracturing, including environmental issues with hydraulic fracturing and the P2 solutions presented in each of the two articles (include the use of liquid carbon dioxide);

  2. five-paragraph review of the Taylor, Carbonell, and Desimone (2010) article on using liquid carbon dioxide for P2, focusing on how liquid carbon dioxide can be used as a substitute in the dry cleaning industry and in the hydraulic fracturing industry; and a

  3. two-paragraph summary to include your overall thoughts about P2 in the dry cleaning and hydraulic fracturing industries, and specifically whether liquid carbon dioxide is a reasonable, cost-effective, and environmentally- friendly alternative to traditional methods.

In order to access the resources below, you must first log into the myCSU Student Portal and access the Academic Search Complete database within the CSU Online Library. Use at least the following references: Chen, J., Al-Wadei, M. H., Kennedy, C. M., & Terry, P. D. (2014). Hydraulic fracturing: Paving the way for a sustainable

future? Journal of Environmental and Public Health, 1-10. Heywood, P. (2012, April). Fracking safer and greener? TCE: The Chemical Engineer, 850, 42-45.

MEE 6201, Advanced Pollution Prevention 5

Sinshelmer, P., Grout, C., Namkoong, A., Gottlieb, R., & Latif, A. (2007). The viability of professional wet cleaning as a pollution prevention alternative to perchloroethylene dry cleaning. Air and Waste Management Association, 57, 172-178.

Taylor, D. K., Carbonell, R., & Desimone, J. M. (2010). Opportunities for pollution prevention and energy efficiency

enabled by the carbon dioxide technology platform. Annual Review of Energy and the Environment, 25(1), 115-148.

Your paper must be at least three full pages in length, not including the title page and reference page. All sources used, including the textbook, must be referenced; paraphrased and quoted material must have accompanying citations. All references and citations used must be in APA style. Information about accessing the Blackboard Grading Rubric for this assignment is provided below. Unit VI Scholarly Activity Address both of the following writing prompts. Your responses to both of your chosen prompts should be at least 500 words each. No title page is needed, but be sure to indicate which writing prompts you are addressing at the top of each response. Each response needs its own reference page. Writing Prompts (respond to both):

  1. Review the Reading Assignment titled as “The Greening of a Pulp and Paper Mill” by Hill, Saviello, and Groves. In your review, describe:

 the history of the Androscoggin Mill, including when it was built, the strike, number of employees, and amount of paper produced,

 the kraft pulping process,

 pollution problems prior to 1990,

 P2 methods implemented after 1990, best available technologies, and economics, and

 key actions by the 1990s management team that changed the mill from an environmental problem to an environmental success.

  1. Review the Reading Assignment titled as “Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Opportunities for Concrete

Pavements” by Santero, Loojos, and Ochsendorf. In your review, describe:

 greenhouse gas production from construction and operation of pavements,

 how each of the following reduces greenhouse emissions: embodied emissions, albedo, carbonation, and vehicle fuel consumption,

 the five greenhouse gas emissions strategies starting on page 861,

 best available technologies related to concrete paving, and

 the Life Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA) presented in the article. You are required to use at least your textbook as source material for both of your responses. All sources used, including the textbook, must be referenced; paraphrased and quoted material must have accompanying citations. Information about accessing the Blackboard Grading Rubric for this assignment is provided below. Unit VII Scholarly Activity Address both of the following writing prompts. Your responses to both of your chosen prompts should be at least 500 words each. No title page is needed, but be sure to indicate which writing prompts you are addressing at the top of each response. Each response needs its own reference page. Writing Prompts (respond to both):

  1. Review the Reading Assignment titled as “Designing a Low-Cost Pollution Prevention Plan to Pay Off at the University of Houston” by Bialowas, Sullivan, and Schneller. In your review, describe:

 why the university developed a P2 plan,

 the process of bulking hazardous wastes, fume hood modifications, and cost savings,

MEE 6201, Advanced Pollution Prevention 6

 silver recovery and cost savings,

 oil reclamation plan and cost savings, and

 your overall thoughts about the university’s P2 program.

  1. Review the Reading Assignment titled as “Effectiveness of State Pollution Prevention Programs and Policies” by Donna Harrington. In your review, describe:

 the three objectives of the study,

 the Toxic Releases Inventory (TRI) and its impact on P2,

 the empirical model (framework) used in the study,

 costs of P2 programs, and

 the article’s conclusions and your thoughts about the conclusions. You are required to use at least your textbook as source material for both of your responses. All sources used, including the textbook, must be referenced; paraphrased and quoted material must have accompanying citations. Information about accessing the Blackboard Grading Rubric for this assignment is provided below. Unit VIII Research Paper Please write a research paper addressing the following: How important is corporate philosophy to a company’s pollution prevention efforts? Please use an example of one or more companies to support your position. The completed assignment must be a minimum of 4-5 pages in length, not including the title page and reference page. The paper should have a minimum of three sections: an introduction, a body, and a conclusion. A minimum of three references should be used, and at least one of these must be from a scholarly, peer-reviewed journal. All sources used, including the textbook, must be referenced; paraphrased and quoted material must have accompanying citations. You may use articles cited in previous portions of the course but you must write new, unique content that was not in any of your previous submissions in this (or any other) course. Information about accessing the Blackboard Grading Rubric for this assignment is provided below.

APA Guidelines The application of the APA writing style shall be practical, functional, and appropriate to each academic level, with the primary purpose being the documentation (citation) of sources. CSU requires that students use APA style for certain papers and projects. Students should always carefully read and follow assignment directions and review the associated grading rubric when available. Students can find CSU’s Citation Guide by clicking here. This document includes examples and sample papers and provides information on how to contact the CSU Success Center.

Grading Rubrics This course utilizes analytic grading rubrics as tools for your professor in assigning grades for all learning activities. Each rubric serves as a guide that communicates the expectations of the learning activity and describes the criteria for each level of achievement. In addition, a rubric is a reference tool that lists evaluation criteria and can help you organize your efforts to meet the requirements of that learning activity. It is imperative for you to familiarize yourself with these rubrics because these are the primary tools your professor uses for assessing learning activities. Rubric categories include: (1) Discussion Board, (2) Assessment (Written Response), and (3) Assignment. However, it is possible that not all of the listed rubric types will be used in a single course (e.g., some courses may not have Assessments). The Discussion Board rubric can be found within Unit I’s Discussion Board submission instructions. The Assessment (Written Response) rubric can be found embedded in a link within the directions for each Unit Assessment. However, these rubrics will only be used when written-response questions appear within the Assessment.

http://www.columbiasouthern.edu/downloads/pdf/success/citation-guide
MEE 6201, Advanced Pollution Prevention 7

Each Assignment type (e.g., article critique, case study, research paper) will have its own rubric. The Assignment rubrics are built into Blackboard, allowing students to review them prior to beginning the Assignment and again once the Assignment has been scored. This rubric can be accessed via the Assignment link located within the unit where it is to be submitted. Students may also access the rubric through the course menu by selecting “Tools” and then “My Grades.” Again, it is vitally important for you to become familiar with these rubrics because their application to your Discussion Boards, Assessments, and Assignments is the method by which your instructor assigns all grades.

Communication Forums These are non-graded discussion forums that allow you to communicate with your professor and other students. Participation in these discussion forums is encouraged, but not required. You can access these forums with the buttons in the Course Menu. Instructions for subscribing/unsubscribing to these forums are provided below. Click here for instructions on how to subscribe/unsubscribe and post to the Communication Forums. Ask the Professor This communication forum provides you with an opportunity to ask your professor general or course content questions. Questions may focus on Blackboard locations of online course components, textbook or course content elaboration, additional guidance on assessment requirements, or general advice from other students. Questions that are specific in nature, such as inquiries regarding assessment/assignment grades or personal accommodation requests, are NOT to be posted on this forum. If you have questions, comments, or concerns of a non- public nature, please feel free to email your professor. Responses to your post will be addressed or emailed by the professor within 48 hours. Before posting, please ensure that you have read all relevant course documentation, including the syllabus, assessment/assignment instructions, faculty feedback, and other important information. Student Break Room This communication forum allows for casual conversation with your classmates. Communication on this forum should always maintain a standard of appropriateness and respect for your fellow classmates. This forum should NOT be used to share assessment answers.

Grading

Discussion Boards (8 @ 2%) = 16% Scholarly Activities (5 @ 9%) = 45% Unit III Case Study = 12% Unit V Essay = 12% Unit VIII Research Paper = 15% Total = 100%

Course Schedule/Checklist (PLEASE PRINT) The following pages contain a printable Course Schedule to assist you through this course. By following this schedule, you will be assured that you will complete the course within the time allotted.

https://online.columbiasouthern.edu/CSU_Content/common_files/instructions/DB/Create_New_Thread_Subscribe.pdf
MEE 6201, Advanced Pollution Prevention 8

MEE 6201, Advanced Pollution Prevention Course Schedule

By following this schedule, you will be assured that you will complete the course within the time allotted. Please keep this schedule for reference as you progress through your course.

Unit I Introduction to Pollution Prevention

Review:  Unit Study Guide

Read:

 Chapter 1: Introduction: material dependence  Chapter 2: Resource consumption and its drivers  Chapter 5: The long reach of legislation  Additional Reading Assignment(s): See Study Guide  Suggested Reading: See Study Guide

Discuss:

 Discussion Board Response: Submit your response to the Discussion Board question by Saturday,11:59 p.m (Central Time)

 Discussion Board Comment: Comment on another student’s Discussion Board response by Tuesday,11:59 p.m (Central Time)

Submit:  Scholarly Activity by Tuesday,11:59 p.m (Central Time)

Notes/Goals:

Unit II Life Cycle Assessment as it Relates to Pollution Prevention

Review:  Unit Study Guide

Read:

 Chapter 3: The material life cycle  Chapter 4: End of first life: a problem or a resource?  Additional Reading Assignment(s): See Study Guide  Suggested Reading: See Study Guide

Discuss:

 Discussion Board Response: Submit your response to the Discussion Board question by Saturday,11:59 p.m (Central Time)

 Discussion Board Comment: Comment on another student’s Discussion Board response by Tuesday,11:59 p.m (Central Time)

Submit:  Scholarly Activity by Tuesday,11:59 p.m (Central Time)

Notes/Goals:

MEE 6201, Advanced Pollution Prevention 9

MEE 6201, Advanced Pollution Prevention Course Schedule

Unit III Pollution Prevention Audits

Review:  Unit Study Guide

Read:

 Chapter 7: Eco-audits and eco-audit tools  Chapter 8: Case studies: eco-audits  Additional Reading Assignment(s): See Study Guide  Suggested Reading: See Study Guide

Discuss:

 Discussion Board Response: Submit your response to the Discussion Board question by Saturday,11:59 p.m (Central Time)

 Discussion Board Comment: Comment on another student’s Discussion Board response by Tuesday,11:59 p.m (Central Time)

Submit:  Case Study by Tuesday,11:59 p.m (Central Time)

Notes/Goals:

Unit IV Pollution Prevention in Specific Industries – Construction, Electronics, and Coal-Fired Power Plants

Review:  Unit Study Guide

Read:  Reading Assignment: See Study Guide  Suggested Reading: See Study Guide

Discuss:

 Discussion Board Response: Submit your response to the Discussion Board question by Saturday,11:59 p.m (Central Time)

 Discussion Board Comment: Comment on another student’s Discussion Board response by Tuesday,11:59 p.m (Central Time)

Submit:  Scholarly Activity by Tuesday,11:59 p.m (Central Time)

Notes/Goals:

Unit V Pollution Prevention in Specific Industries – Dry Cleaning and Hydraulic Fracturing

Review:  Unit Study Guide

Read:  Reading Assignment: See Study Guide  Suggested Reading: See Study Guide

Discuss:

 Discussion Board Response: Submit your response to the Discussion Board question by Saturday,11:59 p.m (Central Time)

 Discussion Board Comment: Comment on another student’s Discussion Board response by Tuesday,11:59 p.m (Central Time)

Submit:  Essay by Tuesday,11:59 p.m (Central Time)

Notes/Goals:

MEE 6201, Advanced Pollution Prevention 10

MEE 6201, Advanced Pollution Prevention Course Schedule

Unit VI Pollution Prevention in Specific Industries – Pulp and Paper Milling and Concrete Paving

Review:  Unit Study Guide

Read:  Reading Assignment: See Study Guide  Suggested Reading: See Study Guide

Discuss:

 Discussion Board Response: Submit your response to the Discussion Board question by Saturday,11:59 p.m (Central Time)

 Discussion Board Comment: Comment on another student’s Discussion Board response by Tuesday,11:59 p.m (Central Time)

Submit:  Scholarly Activity by Tuesday,11:59 p.m (Central Time)

Notes/Goals:

Unit VII Pollution Prevention Economics

Review:  Unit Study Guide

Read:  Reading Assignment: See Study Guide

Discuss:

 Discussion Board Response: Submit your response to the Discussion Board question by Saturday,11:59 p.m (Central Time)

 Discussion Board Comment: Comment on another student’s Discussion Board response by Tuesday,11:59 p.m (Central Time)

Submit:  Scholarly Activity by Tuesday,11:59 p.m (Central Time)

Notes/Goals:

Unit VIII Corporate Philosophy

Review:  Unit Study Guide

Read:  Reading Assignment: See Study Guide  Suggested Reading: See Study Guide

Discuss:

 Discussion Board Response: Submit your response to the Discussion Board question by Saturday,11:59 p.m (Central Time)

 Discussion Board Comment: Comment on another student’s Discussion Board response by Tuesday,11:59 p.m (Central Time)

Submit:  Research Paper by Tuesday,11:59 p.m (Central Time)

Notes/Goals:

Designing a Low-Cost Pollution Prevention Plan to Pay Off at the University of Houston

Yurika Diaz Bialowas, Emmett C. Sullivan, and Robert D. Schneller Environmental Health and Risk Management Department, University of Houston, Houston, TX

ABSTRACT The University of Houston is located just south of down- town Houston, TX. Many different chemical substances are used in scientific research and teaching activities throughout the campus. These activities generate a signif- icant amount of waste materials that must be discarded as regulated hazardous waste per U.S. Environmental Protec- tion Agency (EPA) rules. The Texas Commission on Envi- ronmental Quality (TCEQ) is the state regulatory agency that has enforcement authority for EPA hazardous waste rules in Texas. Currently, the University is classified as a large quantity generator and generates �1000 kg per month of hazardous waste. In addition, the University has experienced a major surge in research activities during the past several years, and overall the quantity of the hazardous waste generated has increased. The TCEQ re- quires large quantity generators to prepare a 5-yr Pollu- tion Prevention (P2) Plan, which describes efforts to elim- inate or minimize the amount of hazardous waste generated. This paper addresses the design and develop- ment of a low-cost P2 plan with minimal implementation obstacles and strong payoff potentials for the University. The projects identified can be implemented with existing University staff resources. This benefits the University by enhancing its environmental compliance efforts, and the disposal cost savings can be used for other purposes. Other educational institutions may benefit by undertak- ing a similar process.

INTRODUCTION The University of Houston campus covers �550 acres and includes �100 buildings. Current enrollment is �35,000 students with �5000 faculty and staff.1 There are �400

laboratories on campus presently with more planned in 2006.

Colleges and universities typically generate a wide range of chemical waste and, because of their decentral- ized organizational structure face, challenges in comply- ing with applicable waste regulations.2,3 One of the criti- cal functions of the University’s Environmental Health and Risk Management Department (EHRM) is to manage chemical waste in accordance with the U.S. Environmen- tal Protection Agency (EPA) and Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) rules.4,5 This is a sizable undertaking for the EHRM staff and ties up many re- sources. There is no formal long-term investment in waste disposal costs for the University other than a demonstra- tion of regulatory compliance.6 Therefore, it is in the best interest of the University to minimize the quantity of chemical waste generated whenever possible so that funds could be spent on projects other than waste disposal.

In addition, the TCEQ has promulgated rules that require large-quantity hazardous waste generators, such as the University, to develop a written 5-yr Pollution Prevention (P2) Plan.7,8 In these plans, generators describe the actions planned to minimize or eliminate the gener- ation of hazardous waste at their facilities.7 Previous P2 plans submitted by the University, as required by the regulations, had limited success in reducing wastes. The implementation of a more effective plan maximizing the available staff resources was needed.

Previous P2 Plan The previous P2 Plan at the University of Houston was designed for the period of 2001–2005. This plan proposed goals to reduce or minimize hazardous waste by taking several steps.9 These steps included the following: (1) chemical substitution: replacing a nonhazardous or less- hazardous substance for a hazardous or regulated chemi- cal; (2) small-scale experimentation: scaling down the experimental techniques used in research or instructional laboratories; (3) chemical exchange program: instituting a CHEM-SWAP program for laboratories to trade their un- used or reusable chemicals with other laboratories on campus; and (4) procurement initiatives: the EHRM peti- tioned the Purchasing Department to adopt a no-pur- chase policy for mercury-containing equipment and lead- based paint; historically mercury waste has been generated at the campus along with lead-based paint waste.

The University had some modest success with the previous P2 Plan. However, as the level of research has

IMPLICATIONS There is regulatory and economic pressure on educational institutions to reduce the amount of EPA-defined hazard- ous waste generated at their campuses. Although reducing and/or eliminating hazardous waste generation is a good management practice, institutions may face challenges in implementing this practice. These could arise from an in- crease in educational activities on campus or limited inter- nal resources to implement new waste management initia- tives. Regardless, a review of the current waste generation and disposal practices of the institution should be a priority. It is likely that waste reduction projects with attractive pay- offs, which can be implemented with existing resources, will be identified.

TECHNICAL PAPER ISSN 1047-3289 J. Air & Waste Manage. Assoc. 56:1320–1324 Copyright 2006 Air & Waste Management Association

1320 Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association Volume 56 September 2006

grown 400% during the years 2000–2005, the overall total quantity of waste generated continued to grow.10 In the year 2001, the University generated 30 t of waste, and by 2004 the total was 38 t. The EHRM expects that by im- plementing a more systematic review of the generating patterns of the University, a more effective P2 plan can be developed with minimal costs and without increasing staff.

DESIGNING A LOW-COST YET EFFECTIVE P2 PLAN The first stage of the plan development was to form a waste minimization team. The team was selected from the EHRM and then asked to follow a three-step process to identify potential projects. These steps included a review of the current waste generation profile, peer institution contacts, and identification of likely successful projects. Likely successful projects were defined as those that could be implemented with a fast payoff, such as �12 months, and with the existing manpower of the EHRM.

Review of Current Waste Generation Profile The team then reviewed the annual waste summaries for the years 2001–2004. These are required reports for regu- lated waste per the TCEQ rules.5 Figure 1 is representative of the waste generation of the University for the period of 2001–2004. The top six waste streams by quantity were waste oil derivatives, used photographic fixer, spent ha- logenated solvents, spent nonhalogenated solvents, and both EPA-defined hazardous waste and nonhazardous lab- oratory overpack drums.11 The associated disposal cost of these six waste streams is given in Table 1.

Peer Institution Contacts The team then contacted several other educational insti- tutions and inquired about their waste handling practices and facilities. The initial contacts were made via tele- phone. The primary objective of these telephone conver- sations was to review their successful waste minimization

practices and possibly identify those that could be imple- mented at the University of Houston.

A site visit was made to the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHSC-H). This institution consists of six health-related schools and has �800 labo- ratories.12 The team was briefed on successful waste min- imization projects undertaken by the UTHSC-H Environ- mental Health and Safety Department and then was escorted on a tour of their waste facilities.

Identification of Likely Successful Projects The final step in the process was for the team to identify likely successful projects based on the waste generating profile of the University and the peer institution contacts. Each potential project was analyzed for time require- ments, equipment needed, safety precautions, cost and savings expectations, potential waste stream reduction, and regulatory compliance.13,14 Projects with the greatest cost benefit and ease of implementation were given the highest ranking. Likely successful projects were consid- ered as having a projected payoff of �12 months based on 2001–2004 waste generation data or being readily doable with existing EHRM staff.

Figure 1. University of Houston waste streams generation profile from 2001 to 2004.

Table 1. Top six waste streams generation and estimated disposal cost for 2004.

Waste Stream

Quantity Generated

(lb)

Waste Disposal Cost

($)

Nonhalogenated solvents 4146 651 Halogenated solvents 5030 1580 Hazardous lab pack 1769 328 Nonhazardous lab pack 10,046 7890 Waste oil derivatives 18,343 3411 Photographic fixer 11,713 5018 Total 51,047 18,878

Notes: Source—University of Houston 2004 Annual Waste Summary.11

Diaz Bialowas, Sullivan, and Schneller

Volume 56 September 2006 Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 1321

The team considered many different waste minimi- zation options for the six largest quantity streams. These included the following: (1) increase recycle of waste oil: expand existing program to include all recyclable oils on campus; (2) increase bulking of compatible liquid waste: safely combine as much compatible liquid waste in a single drum versus individual containers overpacked with absorbent material; (3) increase bulking of compatible solid wastes: safely combine as much compatible solid waste in a single drum versus individual containers over- packed with absorbent material; (4) install solvent recov- ery system for chlorinated solvent wastes: secure the equipment necessary to recover the hazardous constitu- ents of the chlorinated solvent waste stream, making the remaining material nonhazardous; and (5) installation of a silver recovery system for photographic waste: a system designed to capture the silver in the photographic fixer, which makes the remaining liquid waste nonhazardous.

From this list of potential projects, three were chosen by the team with the expectation that a significant reduc- tion in waste generation could be made with the resources available to the department. The selected projects were: (1) increase bulking of compatible liquid waste; (2) instal- lation of a silver recovery system for photographic waste; and (3) increase recycle of waste oil.

PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION

Increase Bulking of Compatible Liquid Waste This project consists of safely bulking compatible liquid chemical wastes by combining individual containers into a single larger container, such as a 55-gal drum. Compat- ible liquid waste would be considered as being in the same classification according to the Department of Transporta- tion Hazardous Materials table.15 Successful bulking of more chemical waste would lead to a reduction in the quantity of laboratory overpack (lab pack) waste. A lab pack waste drum typically contains 14–16 individual bot- tles placed throughout the absorbent packing material. The entire drum is considered hazardous waste, although a significant percentage may be the packing material. By bulking compatible wastes whenever possible a signifi- cant reduction in the total quantity of lab pack waste could be achieved. The team estimated that this project

could reduce the cost of lab pack waste from $8218 to $569 per year. This would be a 93% cost savings.

The project would likely require an additional 8 hr per week of EHRM staff time to segregate chemicals ac- cording to their compatibility and bulk them into drums. A reassignment of duties for existing personnel could be made to accommodate the 8 hr. In addition, there is always a possibility of an unforeseen chemical reaction while bulking chemical waste. Historically, bulking was conducted under a flexible exhaust line in the waste fa- cility. The team identified a method to facilitate safer bulking by moving the operation to a fume hood. This could be accomplished by retrofitting the hood at a cost of �$2307 dollars. Due to the savings potential of this project, the alterations were made to the fume hood. Figure 2 shows the modifications made to enhance the bulking process in the university waste facility.

Installation of a Silver Recovery System for Photographic Waste

The photographic laboratories at the University of Hous- ton generated a total of 6 t of liquid silver-containing waste in 2003 and 6.5 t in 2004. Silver is one of the primary components of film and photographic paper that make it possible to form an image. Although it is not an ingredient of the original photographic solution, it is a byproduct of the film and paper processing. Silver is a heavy metal and is considered a hazardous waste by EPA.4

Discharge of silver to the City of Houston wastewater treatment system is strictly regulated.16

Silver has an economic value, and recovering it from the photographic waste saves the University money from two sources. First, the University receives a monetary value or credit for the silver recovered, and second, the University reduces the amount of hazardous photo- graphic waste generated and the associated disposal cost.

Silver in the form of thiosulfates anionic complex can be removed from photographic processing solutions by a number of techniques including electrolytic recovery, me- tallic replacement, precipitation, and ion exchange.17,18 The best alternative for the University is a combination of an electrolytic recovery system followed by a chemical recovery cartridge system. This combination will provide a higher

Figure 2. Original flexible exhaust line (left), original fume hood configuration (center), and retrofitted fume hood—note modification to easily roll drum underneath for safe bulking (right).

Diaz Bialowas, Sullivan, and Schneller

1322 Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association Volume 56 September 2006

silver recovery, allowing the remaining solution to be dis- posed into the city sewer system. The necessary equipment can be leased, and a vendor can service and maintain the silver recovery unit. The equipment lease, service, and main- tenance cost is expected to be �$676/yr. There will be ad- ditional costs for setup and installation. This project is ex- pected to reduce the cost of photographic fixer waste disposal from $5018 to $676/yr, an 87% savings.

The EHRM expects to eliminate �11,713 lb of pho- tographic waste per year with the addition of the new silver recovery unit. By using a lease service option, there will be minimal impact on staff requirements to service the unit.

Increase Recycle of Waste Oil One of the benefits of developing a systematic P2 plan for an institution is that it is possible to improve on existing recycling efforts that are already in place.5,19,20 This was the case for the University in terms of used oil recycling. The University has a fleet of 139 assorted trucks and cars and also has an auto shop that performs routine mainte- nance on these vehicles. The auto shop has a used oil collection system with a pump, associated piping, and a 1000-gallon storage tank. The auto shop had an arrange- ment with a local used oil reclamation firm to have the tank pumped out on a regular basis at no cost.

The waste minimization team quickly realized that used oil from other parts of the University could be added with this oil. EHRM waste personnel could easily bring used oil collected on campus to the collection system and have it pumped to the storage tank. The impact on the EHRM staff would be minimal to implement this procedure. The team conducted a compliance check of the current vendor with the TCEQ and also visited the reclamation site. This project is expected to eliminate used oil disposal costs from $3411 per year to $0, a 100% savings.

THE COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS Table 2 displays the potential impact of the new P2 plan. The table lists the total waste generated before the plan is implemented and the projected implementation quanti- ties of the proposed projects.

Comprehensively, all of the projects combined could benefit the University in reducing the waste generated from the six largest waste streams from 51,047 lb per year

to 20,991 lb/yr. This will lead to a reduction in overall disposal costs.

The most significant remaining challenge is the re- duction of unknown waste. Although the amount of un- known waste is minimal, the analytical expense to iden- tify the waste and assure proper disposal is significant, greater than the collective disposal cost of the six largest waste streams. This challenge can be addressed by educat- ing the laboratory personnel of the importance of waste identification and segregation.

Figure 3 demonstrates the University waste genera- tion profile for the base years 2001–2005 and the pre- dicted waste generation for the years of 2006–2010. The figure shows the projected waste reductions with the im- plementation of the three selected projects described pre- viously. The forecast shows the elimination of the photo- graphic fixer and waste oil derivatives streams. Lab pack waste also shows a very significant reduction. The halo- genated and nonhalogenated solvents show an increase due to the shift from lab pack waste to bulked solvents. However, the increase in disposal costs for the bulked halogenated and nonhalogenated waste solvents is offset by the projected savings in lab pack waste disposal costs.

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMENDATIONS The University of Houston is a large teaching and research institution that generates a significant amount of chemi- cal waste that will likely increase as the University con- tinues to grow. Much of the waste generated is considered hazardous per EPA regulations. The University faces in- creasing regulatory and economic pressure to reduce the amount of hazardous waste generated and the associated disposal costs. The EHRM has had modest success in the past in reducing hazardous waste generation; however, it faces staff and budget limitations. A more effective P2 Plan was necessary using the available departmental resources.

A waste minimization team was formed, and a three- step process to identify likely successful projects was fol- lowed. These steps consisted of profiling current waste generation processes, contacting peer institutions, and selection of projects. By following this process, the uni- versity has identified several projects and is expecting to reduce its six largest waste streams collectively by 50%. Fur- thermore, the University expects to achieve these goals with its existing staff and also expects to pay the cost of imple- mentation within the first 12 months of each project.

Waste minimization is a long-established environ- mental and economic best practice. The University has faced challenges in trying to reduce waste generation with the available resources while at the same time experienc- ing growth. Other institutions and organizations may face similar challenges. The University has found that despite these challenges, an effective P2 Plan to minimize waste generation can be developed with the resources available to the organization. Such a P2 Plan can be sur- prisingly effective in reducing waste quantities and can be highly cost effective.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors thank Alan Lucas, environmental protection manager at the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, for his ideas and suggestions on this project.

Table 2. Projected impact of the waste minimization program (6 largest waste streams).

Major Waste Streams

Quantity Generated Before (lb)

Projected Quantity

Generation (lb) Project

Nonhalogenated solvents 4146 5824 Bulking Halogenated solvents 5030 14,558 Bulking Hazardous lab pack 1769 518 Bulking Nonhazardous lab pack 10,046 91 Bulking Waste oil derivatives 18,343 0 Recycle Photographic fixer 11,713 0 Silver recovery Total 51,047 20,991

Notes: Source—Expected waste reduction by implementing waste reduction projects: (1) bulking, (2) recycling, and (3) silver recovery.

Diaz Bialowas, Sullivan, and Schneller

Volume 56 September 2006 Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 1323

They also wish to thank Mark O’Riley, hazardous waste coordinator, and Rocio Harrelson, biological safety man- ager, both members of the Environmental Health and Risk Management Department, for their assistance in the preparation of this paper.

REFERENCES 1. The University of Houston. UH at a Glance. Available at http://www.

uh.edu/uh_glance (accessed 2005). 2. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Environmental Virtual Campus.

Available at http://www.c2e2.org/evc/about.html (accessed 2005). 3. The Campus Safety, Health and Environmental Management Association

(CSHEMA) List Server. Available at: listserv@lists.umn.edu (accessed 2005). 4. Environmental Protection Agency. Fed. Regist. 2002, 40, 260–265. 5. Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. Standards Applicable to

Generators of Hazardous Waste; Sections 335.61-335.78; Texas Commis- sion on Environmental Quality: Austin, TX, 2003.

  1. Environmental Protection Agency Sector Program Colleges and Uni- versities. Environmental Compliance Assistance Guide for Colleges and Universities. Available at http://www.epa.gov/ispd/colleges/index.html (ac- cessed 2005).

  2. Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. Pollution Prevention: Source Reduction and Waste Minimization; Sections 335.471-335.480; Texas Commission on Environmental Quality: Austin, TX, 2003.

  3. The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. A Guide to Pollution Prevention Planning; Texas Commission on Environmental Quality: Austin, TX, 2004.

  4. The University of Houston. 2001–2005 Waste Reduction and Waste Minimization Plan Executive Summary; The University of Houston: Houston, TX. 2000.

  5. The University of Houston Division of Research. Annual Research Re- ports. Available at http://www.research.uh.edu/downloads/PDF_format/ Annual2003/compare_award_by_agency.pdf (accessed 2005).

  6. The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. University of Houston 2001–2004 Annual Waste Summaries. Available at http://tceq.state.ex.us/ permitting/registration/ihw/waste_reporting.html (accessed 2005).

  7. The University of Texas Houston Health Science Center. Status Report 2000; The University of Texas Houston Health Science Center: Hous- ton, TX, 2000.

  8. Schwartz, C.; Howard, W. Waste Minimization: Cornerstones for a Suc- cessful Implementation; McGraw-Hill: New York, NY, 2002.

  9. Selg, R.A.; Norkus, A.M.; Olson, C.M. Cost-Effective Waste Minimization Techniques; McGraw-Hill: New York, NY, 1991.

  10. Keegan, R.J. 2004/2005 Hazardous Materials Substances and Wastes Compliance Guide; Hazardous Materials: Kutztown, PA, 2004.

  11. City of Houston. Water and Sewer Code Ordinances; Article V; Dis- posal of Industrial Wastes through City Sewer System; Section 47-186, 3284.3-3284.4, Section 47-194, 3287-3289; City of Houston, Houston, TX, 2004.

  12. Silver Council. Code of Management Practices: Guide for Photo Processors. Harrison: New York, NY, 1997. Available at http://www.silvercouncil.org/ codes/Photo_Manual.pdf (accessed 2004).

  13. Eastman Kodak Company. Sources of Silver in Photographic Processing Facilities, 1998. Available at http://www.kodak.com/eknec/documents/f9/ 0900688a800f80f9/J210ENG.pdf (accessed 2005).

  14. The University of Houston Environmental Health and Risk Manage- ment Department. Policies and Procedures. Chemical Recycling and Waste Minimization Procedures. Available at http://www.uh.edu/plantops/ emanual/forms/ehrm/ecbs_ChemRecycleWasteMinProc012605.pdf (ac- cessed 2005).

  15. The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. Resource Exchange Network for Eliminating Waste (RENEW). Available at http://tceq. state.tx.us/assistance/P2Recyclr/renew/renew.html (accessed 2005).

About the Authors Yurika Diaz Bialowas is a chemical engineer intern and an environmental compliance at the University of Houston En- vironmental Health and Risk Management Department. Emmett Sullivan is the University of Houston environmental compliance manager and Robert D. Schneller is the direc- tor of the Environmental Health and Risk Management Department. Address correspondence to Yurika Diaz Bialowas, 935 Rock Springs Dr., Richmond, TX 77469; phone: �1-832-588-8385; fax: �1-281-344-0094; e-mail: yurikadiazbialowas@houston.rr.com.

Figure 3. University of Houston major waste stream generation profile.

Diaz Bialowas, Sullivan, and Schneller

1324 Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association Volume 56 September 2006

 

"Are you looking for this answer? We can Help click Order Now"