Question 1 (33 points)

For thousands of years, biologists/naturalists have classified animals and plants on the basis of homologies even without recognizing the evolutionary significance. Provide two examples of such groupings and provide a list of the homologies used to support each group membership. Some biologists have proposed that classification based on homology is the only way to create valid animal groups. Argue both for and against this stance.

Question 2 (33 points)

Consider the flipper of a manatee and the fin of Tiktaalik. Are these structures homologous, analogous, or both? Explain.

Question 3 (34 points)

Consider the penguin fin. Provide an example of a homologous structure to the penguin fin in another organism. Provide an example of an analogous structure in another organism. Is the penguin fin a vestige? Argue for or against this stance.


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